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雷击建筑物的先导连接过程模拟

任晓毓 张义军 吕伟涛 陶善昌 德庆措姆

任晓毓, 张义军, 吕伟涛, 等. 雷击建筑物的先导连接过程模拟. 应用气象学报, 2010, 21(4): 450-457..
引用本文: 任晓毓, 张义军, 吕伟涛, 等. 雷击建筑物的先导连接过程模拟. 应用气象学报, 2010, 21(4): 450-457.
Ren Xiaoyu, Zhang Yijun, Lü Weitao, et al. Simulation of lightning leaders and connection process with structures. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2010, 21(4): 450-457.
Citation: Ren Xiaoyu, Zhang Yijun, Lü Weitao, et al. Simulation of lightning leaders and connection process with structures. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2010, 21(4): 450-457.

雷击建筑物的先导连接过程模拟

资助项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 0605004,40875003

公益性行业(气象)科研专项 GYHY (QX)200706022

Simulation of Lightning Leaders and Connection Process with Structures

  • 摘要: 为了研究闪电先导与地物的相互作用,该文建立了一个闪电先导的二维模式以模拟雷击建筑物的先导连接过程。模拟得到梯级长度在13.8~51.5 m的范围内,下行先导的感应电荷为0.03×10-4~1.2×10-4 C/m,梯级长度和感应电荷量均随着先导离地高度的下降而增加,模拟结果与观测值相吻合。下行先导最后一跳之前的转向并不明显,但最后一跳,下行先导向避雷针产生的上行先导偏转一定角度。模式模拟了下行先导与40 m宽度的建筑之间的相互作用和连接过程,得到建筑物拐角也具有一定的吸引半径,避雷针和拐角之间存在竞争关系。因此,在雷电防护设计中需要考虑拐角等复杂结构尖端对闪电的吸引作用,简单地采用理想情况(如地面孤立高耸尖端)下避雷针的吸引半径等参数进行复杂建筑物的防雷设计会存在问题和隐患。
  • 图  1  模式结构示意图

    Fig. 1  Sketch of model structure

    图  2  梯级长度的计算示意图

    Fig. 2  Calculation of the length of stepped leader

    图  3  下行先导下一步发展方向的计算示意图

    Fig. 3  Direction of the next step of downward leader

    图  4  收集体积法示意图

    Fig. 4  Collection Volume Method

    图  5  下行先导的发展模拟得到的空间电位分布

    Fig. 5  Distribution of space potential obtained from simulation of a negative leader progression

    图  6  下行先导感应电荷的模拟结果

    Fig. 6  Simulation results of induced charge of downward leader

    图  7  不同情况下空间电位分布的模拟结果示意图

    (a)理想情况的模拟结果,(b)建筑宽40m的模拟结果

    Fig. 7  Simulation results of distribution of space potential in different conditions

    (a) simulation results for perfect condition, (b) simulation results for the width of the structure is 40 meters

    表  1  梯级长度与上行先导长度对照表

    Table  1  Comparison table of the length of stepped leader and upward leader

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2009-12-17
  • 修回日期:  2010-03-12
  • 刊出日期:  2010-08-31

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