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强风暴中反极性电荷结构研究进展

张义军 徐良韬 郑栋 王飞

张义军, 徐良韬, 郑栋, 等. 强风暴中反极性电荷结构研究进展. 应用气象学报, 2014, 25(5): 513-526..
引用本文: 张义军, 徐良韬, 郑栋, 等. 强风暴中反极性电荷结构研究进展. 应用气象学报, 2014, 25(5): 513-526.
Zhang Yijun, Xu Liangtao, Zheng Dong, et al. Review on inverted charge structure of severe storms. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2014, 25(5): 513-526.
Citation: Zhang Yijun, Xu Liangtao, Zheng Dong, et al. Review on inverted charge structure of severe storms. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2014, 25(5): 513-526.

强风暴中反极性电荷结构研究进展

资助项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41030960

中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费 2013Z006

国家重点基础研究发展计划 2014CB441406

详细信息
    通信作者:

    张义军, email: zhangyj@cams.cma.gov.cn

Review on Inverted Charge Structure of Severe Storms

  • 摘要: 反极性电荷结构是强风暴系统中一种常见的电荷结构配置,它是强风暴中正地闪大量发生的重要原因之一,同时也往往与灾害性天气相联系。人们对云内电荷结构的认识随电场探空、多种地面观测手段的发展而深入。反极性电荷结构并非在强风暴的起始阶段就出现,而存在一个演变过程,出现在风暴发展的特定阶段。宽广强烈的上升气流被认为在反极性电荷结构的形成中起关键作用,它使得上升气流区液态水含量等微物理条件发生改变,进而影响大小粒子碰撞的起电过程,使风暴内主要起电区霰粒子荷正电,冰晶等粒子荷负电,从而形成反极性电荷结构。强风暴中气流的动力输送、风切变等也被认为是反极性电荷结构形成的可能原因。利用数值模式,在真实的气象背景场下再现强风暴的反极性电荷结构演变特征和闪电活动特征,也是研究反极性结构形成的有效途径之一。针对正地闪大量发生的强风暴开展大规模外场观测试验,并将观测结果与数值模拟相结合,将有利于理解强风暴中反极性电荷结构的形成及其与闪电活动特征的关系。
  • 图  1  正常 (a) 与反转 (b) 的三极性电荷结构垂直电场探空示意图[19]

    Fig. 1  Stylized profile of Ez in the normal (a) and inverted (b) tripole charge structure (from Reference [19])

    图  2  三维电场的探空结果 (填色为雷达回波强度,黑色线为探空气球的移动路径,黑线上暗红色线段的长短和方向代表了探测点上场强的大小和方向)[25]

    Fig. 2  The electric field vectors (dark red line) along the path of sounding balloon (black line) (the shaded represents the radar reflectivity)(from Reference [25])

    图  3  LMA探测的闪电辐射源[25]

    (a) 正极性云闪,(b) 负极性云闪

    Fig. 3  Classification of the lightning radiation sources mapped by the LMA in terms of the parent storm charge for the positive-polarity (a) and negative-polarity cloud flashes (b)(from Reference [25])

    图  4  1988年5月31日反极性结构垂直场强气球探空[8]

    Fig. 4  The Ez profile of inverted charge structure on 31 May 1988 (from Reference [8])

    图  5  利用LMA的推断的一次雹暴过程的电荷结构演变[51]

    Fig. 5  Summary of the vertical charge structure of the developing storm inferred from OK-LMA data during each analyzed period of its lifetime (from Reference [51])

    图  6  正常 (a) 与反转 (b) 的三极性电荷结构中正、负偶极性概念

    Fig. 6  The concept of positive dipole and negative dipole in the normal (a) and inverted (b) tripole structures

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  • 收稿日期:  2014-07-15
  • 修回日期:  2014-07-30
  • 刊出日期:  2014-09-30

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