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中国冬季积雪特征及欧亚大陆积雪对中国气候影响

张人禾 张若楠 左志燕

张人禾, 张若楠, 左志燕. 中国冬季积雪特征及欧亚大陆积雪对中国气候影响. 应用气象学报, 2016, 27(5): 513-526. DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20160501.
引用本文: 张人禾, 张若楠, 左志燕. 中国冬季积雪特征及欧亚大陆积雪对中国气候影响. 应用气象学报, 2016, 27(5): 513-526. DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20160501.
Zhang Renhe, Zhang Ruonan, Zuo Zhiyan. An overview of wintertime snow cover characteristics over China and the impact of Eurasian snow cover on Chinese climate. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2016, 27(5): 513-526. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20160501
Citation: Zhang Renhe, Zhang Ruonan, Zuo Zhiyan. An overview of wintertime snow cover characteristics over China and the impact of Eurasian snow cover on Chinese climate. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2016, 27(5): 513-526. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20160501

中国冬季积雪特征及欧亚大陆积雪对中国气候影响

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20160501
资助项目: 

国家重点研究发展计划 2016YFA0600602

国家自然科学基金项目 41205059

国家重点基础研究发展计划 2015CB453203

国家自然科学基金项目 41375092

详细信息
    通信作者:

    张若楠, email: renhe@camscma.cn

An Overview of Wintertime Snow Cover Characteristics over China and the Impact of Eurasian Snow Cover on Chinese Climate

  • 摘要: 该文首先回顾了有关中国冬季积雪的研究进展,包括中国冬季积雪的空间分布气候特征以及季节、年际和年代际变化,中国冬季降雪特征,气象因子对中国冬季积雪水量平衡的影响,外强迫和大气环流系统在积雪形成中的作用等。冬春季欧亚大陆积雪对同期和后期中国气候影响的相关研究说明与欧亚大陆积雪异常相关联的中国气候异常以及积雪通过改变土壤湿度、表面温度和辐射分布,引起大气环流异常,进而对中国气候产生影响的物理过程。应用美国环境预测中心 (NCEP) 第2版气候预测系统 (CFSv2) 的回报试验结果,对CFSv2在欧亚大陆积雪变化及其与中国气候关系的可预报性方面的分析表明,CFSv2能够较好地回报出春季欧亚积雪的年际和年代际变异及其与中国夏季降水之间的联系。文章最后提出了在积雪及其气候效应研究方面一些有待解决的问题。
  • 图  1  中国冬季雪量平衡各项在1979-2010年的气候平均值[44]

    (a) 冬季雪水当量,(b) 秋末雪水当量,(c) 冬季降雪,(d) 积雪蒸发,(e) 积雪升华,(f) 积雪融化

    Fig. 1  Climatological winter snow water equivalent (a), November snow water equivalent (b), winter snowfall (c), winter snow evaporation (d), winter snow sublimation (e) and winter snow melting (f) over China for 1979-2010(from reference [44])

    图  2  1979—2004年春季欧亚大陆雪水当量与中国夏季降水奇异值分解 (SVD) 第1模态的左场 (a)、右场 (b) 和相应的标准化时间系数 (c) 及春季积雪时间序列回归得到的春季 (d) 和夏季 (e)500 hPa高度场 (单位:gpm)

    (图 2d图 2e中黄色和蓝色分别代表达到0.01和0.05显著性水平)[23]

    Fig. 2  The leading SVD modes of spring Eurasian snow water equivalent (a), summer rainfall over China (b), and their normalized time series (c) for 1979-2004 with regressed 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies (unit:gpm) in spring (d) and summer (e) against the SVD time series of spring snow water equivalent, respectively

    (yellow and blue areas in Fig. 2d, Fig. 2e represent anomalies exceeding 0.01 and 0.05 levels)(from reference [23])

    图  3  1979—2004年中国春季降水 (a)、欧亚大陆春季雪水当量 (b) 的SVD第1模态和相应的标准化时间系数 (c) 以及由标准化的西伯利亚区域 (40°~50°N, 75°~96°E) 雪水当量回归得到的500 hPa位势高度 (d)、850 hPa位势高度 (等值线,单位:gpm) 和风场 (矢量)(e)

    (阴影区表示相关系数和位势高度异常达到0.05显著性水平)[70]

    Fig. 3  The leading SVD modes of the spring rainfall over China (a) and Eurasian snow water equivalent (b) as well as their normalized SVD (c) for 1979-2004 with regressed spring 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies (d) and 850 hPa geopotential height anomalies (the contour, unit:gpm) and wind anomalies (the vector)(e) against the normalized spring snow water equivalent time series averaged over Siberia area (40°-50°N, 75°-96°E), respectively

    (dark areas in represent correlation coefficients and height anomalies exceeding 0.05 level)(from reference [70])

    图  4  标准化的冬季 (1—3月) 欧亚大陆中高纬度地区 (55°~70°N, 0°~180°) 雪水当量时间序列 (a)、冬季雪水当量 (b)、700 hPa环流场 (c)、降水率 (d) 在积雪低指数年 (1999—2010年) 和高指数年 (1979—1998年) 的合成差[94]

    Fig. 4  Time series of normalized Jan-Mar snow water equivalent averaged over high-latitude Eurasia (55°-70°N, 0°-180°E)(a) with differences in snow water equivalent (b), 700 hPa wind (c) and precipitation (d) between composites of low snow cover years of 1999-2010 and high snow cover years of 1979-1998(from reference [94])

    图  5  欧亚大陆积雪对中国气候影响概念图

    (a) 春季欧亚积雪对夏季中国气候影响,(b) 春季欧亚积雪对同期中国气候影响,(c) 冬季欧亚积雪对同期中国气候影响

    Fig. 5  Schematic diagrams on effects of spring Eurasian snow cover upon summer climate (a), spring Eurasian snow cover upon synchronous climate (b) and winter Eurasian snow cover upon synchronous climate (c) over China

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-06-27
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