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城市效应对登陆热带气旋妮妲降水影响的模拟

杨挺 端义宏 徐晶 冯佳宁

杨挺, 端义宏, 徐晶, 等. 城市效应对登陆热带气旋妮妲降水影响的模拟. 应用气象学报, 2018, 29(4): 410-422. DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20180403..
引用本文: 杨挺, 端义宏, 徐晶, 等. 城市效应对登陆热带气旋妮妲降水影响的模拟. 应用气象学报, 2018, 29(4): 410-422. DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20180403.
Yang Ting, Duan Yihong, Xu Jing, et al. Simulation of the urbanization impact on precipitation of landfalling tropical cyclone Nida(2016). J Appl Meteor Sci, 2018, 29(4): 410-422. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20180403.
Citation: Yang Ting, Duan Yihong, Xu Jing, et al. Simulation of the urbanization impact on precipitation of landfalling tropical cyclone Nida(2016). J Appl Meteor Sci, 2018, 29(4): 410-422. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20180403.

城市效应对登陆热带气旋妮妲降水影响的模拟

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20180403
资助项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划 2015CB452800

中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费专项 2016Z003

详细信息
    通信作者:

    徐晶, 邮箱: xujing@cma.gov.cn

Simulation of the Urbanization Impact on Precipitation of Landfalling Tropical Cyclone Nida(2016)

  • 摘要: 运用中尺度数值模式WRF耦合城市冠层模式(urban canopy model,UCM),对2016年登陆深圳的热带气旋妮妲(1604)(以下简称妮妲)进行数值模拟。高分辨率数值模拟较好地再现了妮妲登陆前后的强度、路径和累积降水。利用城市化过程当中城市冠层对热带气旋降水的敏感性试验结果表明:城市冠层会减弱对流运动和水汽的输送,导致热带气旋登陆后珠江口城市群区域累积降水量略减少。应用最新的土地利用资料进行的城市下垫面敏感性试验结果表明:由于城市下垫面粗糙度增加,造成登陆地面风的减速,强度减弱,潜热通量与2 m高度比湿相应减小;城市下垫面粗糙度增加会加强该区域垂直对流运动以及不稳定能量增加,有利于降水增强,尤其在城市化下垫面处,热带气旋登陆后6 h累积降水增加量最大可超过20 mm。总体而言,对登陆热带气旋降水而言,耦合城市冠层使城市区域热带气旋降水减少,但在数值模拟中城市冠层影响作用不显著。城市化下垫面对登陆热带气旋暴雨的增幅作用明显,在登陆热带气旋降水预报中应重视。
  • 图  1  模拟试验网格区域设置

    Fig. 1  Domain configuration of simulations

    图  2  珠江口地区下垫面的土地利用类型图(红框是珠三角城市区域) (a)新土地利用资料(WESTDC, 2013), (b)旧土地利用资料(USGS, 1992)

    Fig. 2  The land use for new land use data(WESTDC in 2013)(a) and old land use data(USGS in 1992)(b) (the urban region of Pearl River Delta is shown in red frame)

    图  3  2016年8月1日00:00—2日18:00热带气旋妮妲路径及强度随时间演变(a)模式模拟路径与最佳路径,(b)近中心最大风速

    Fig. 3  Storm tracks from simulations and the best track(a) and maximum wind speed(b) of tropical cyclone Nida(2016) from 0000 UTC 1 Aug to 1800 UTC 2 Aug in 2016

    图  4  2018年8月1日00:00—2日18:00模式模拟路径与最佳路径误差(a)及强度误差(b)

    Fig. 4  Track errors(a) and intensity errors(b) in simulations of tropical cyclone Nida(2016) from 0000 UTC 1 Aug to 1800 UTC 2 Aug in 2016

    图  5  热带气旋妮妲登陆后6 h累积降水量分布(a)CMORPH资料(2016年8月1日18:00—2日00:00),(b)试验UB 2016年8月1日22:00—2日04:00累积降水量及降水时段终止时刻10 m高度风场

    Fig. 5  6 h accumulated precipitation from 1800 UTC 1 Aug to 0000 UTC 2 Aug in 2016 from CMORPH observations(unit:mm)(a), 6 h accumulated precipitation from 2200 UTC 1 Aug to 0400 UTC 2 Aug in 2016 from test UB simulated experiment superposed on 10 m wind vector at the end moment of precipitation period(b)

    图  6  2016年8月1日22:00—2日04:00各组试验模拟得到的累积降水量和降水量差值(红框是珠三角城市区域) (a)试验UB, (b)试验NUC, (c)试验NUB, (d)试验UB与试验NUC差值, (e)试验NUC与试验NUB差值, (f)试验UB与试验NUB差值

    Fig. 6  6 h accumulated precipitation and difference from 2200 UTC 1 Aug to 0400 UTC 2 Aug in 2016 (the urban region of Pearl River Delta is shown in red frame) (a)test UB, (b)test NUC, (c)test NUB, (d)difference between test UB and test NUC, (e)difference between test NUC and test NUB, (f)difference between test UB and test NUB

    图  7  2016年8月1日22:00—2日04:00 3组试验平均10 m风速差值(a)试验UB与试验NUC, (b)试验NUC与试验NUB, (c)试验UB与试验NUB

    Fig. 7  Difference distribution for test UB and test NUC(a), test NUC and test NUB(b), test UB and test NUB(c) of 10 m wind speed for the precipitation period from 2200 UTC 1 Aug to 0400 UTC 2 Aug in 2016

    图  8  3组试验平均散度差随时间演变

    Fig. 8  Time series of averaged divergence difference from 3 tests

    图  9  3组试验城区面积平均气象要素的时间序列图(a)地表温度, (b)2 m气温, (c)感热通量, (d)潜热通量, (e)2 m比湿

    Fig. 9  Time series of surface meteorological variables for 3 tests (a)surface temperture, (b)temperature at 2 m, (c)sensible heat, (d)latent heat, (e)specific humidity at 2 m

    图  10  2016年8月1日22:00—2日04:00东北—西南向剖面平均相对湿度(等值线,单位:%)、垂直速度(填色)差值(a)试验UB与试验NUC,(b)试验NUC与试验NUB,(c)试验UB与试验NUB

    Fig. 10  Cross-section of difference of relative humidity (the contour, unit:%) superposed with vertical velocity (the shaded) from 2200 UTC 1 Aug to 0400 UTC 2 in 2016 (a)test UB and test NUC, (b)test NUC and test NUB, (c)test UB and test NUB

    图  11  3组试验对流有效位能时间序列

    Fig. 11  Time series of convective available potential energy from 3 tests

    表  1  模式参数化方案选择

    Table  1  Description of model configuration

    物理过程 参数化方案名称
    积云对流参数化方案 Grell-3[31](仅用于d01和d02区域)
    云微物理方案 Morrison 2-mom[32]
    边界层方案 YSU[33]
    短波辐射方案 RRTMG[34]
    长波辐射方案 RRTMG[34]
    陆面过程方案 Noah[35]
    下载: 导出CSV
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