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黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线特征

王金兰 俞小鼎 汤兴芝 于海敬 胡亮帆

王金兰, 俞小鼎, 汤兴芝, 等. 黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线特征. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(5): 592-602. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210507..
引用本文: 王金兰, 俞小鼎, 汤兴芝, 等. 黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线特征. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(5): 592-602. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210507.
Wang Jinlan, Yu Xiaoding, Tang Xingzhi, et al. Characteristics of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(5): 592-602. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210507.
Citation: Wang Jinlan, Yu Xiaoding, Tang Xingzhi, et al. Characteristics of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(5): 592-602. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210507.

黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线特征

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20210507
资助项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41775044

河南省气象科学技术研究项目 KZ201702

详细信息
    通信作者:

    俞小鼎, 邮箱: xdyu1962@126.com

Characteristics of Convection-triggering Drylines in the Drainage Area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers

  • 摘要: 利用高空和地面观测、欧洲中期预报中心再分析资料(ERA5)以及卫星云图,统计2010—2019年4—9月我国黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线特征。结果表明:干线主要出现在山东德州附近和豫北周边地区,多呈准西北—东南向和准东北—西南向;长度集中在100~200 km,宽度在50~100 km;多出现在14:00(北京时,下同)或17:00;多发生在高空冷涡形势下,低层多有切变线(或辐合线)配合,地面多位于入海高压后部。地面气象要素统计显示:干线干侧温度较湿侧偏高1.9 ℃,湿侧露点温度较干侧偏高6.8 ℃,干线两侧温度梯度为-2.7 ℃·(100 km)-1,露点温度梯度为10.1 ℃·(100 km)-1,比湿梯度为5.9 g·kg-1·(100 km)-1。探空参数统计结果表明:干线湿侧大气可降水量略高于干侧,925 hPa,850 hPa和700 hPa湿侧比湿均大于干侧;对流有效位能湿侧平均值远大于干侧;干线两侧700 hPa,850 hPa与500 hPa温度差非常接近,即黄淮地区干线两侧对流有效位能的显著差异主要由干线两侧低层水汽条件差异造成,干线两侧条件不稳定度大致相当。
  • 图  1  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧地面气象要素箱线图

    Fig. 1  Surface meteorological elements on both sides of convection-triggering dryline in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    图  2  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧大气可降水量箱线图

    Fig. 2  Precipitable water on both sides of convection-triggering dryline in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    图  3  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧中低层比湿箱线图

    Fig. 3  Specific humidity on both sides of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    图  4  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧对流有效位能、700 hPa与500 hPa温度差、850 hPa与500 hPa温度差箱线图

    Fig. 4  Convective available potential energy, temperature differences of 700 hPa to 500 hPa and 850 hPa to 500 hPa on both sides of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    图  5  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧0~6 km垂直风切变箱线图

    Fig. 5  The vertical wind shear of 0-6 km on both sides of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    图  6  2011年6月11日黄淮地区干线14:00地面图

    Fig. 6  The surface chart of dryline in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers at 1400 BT 11 Jun 2011

    图  7  2011年6月11日黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线系统配置图

    (箭头表示气流方向)

    Fig. 7  The system configuration of convection-triggering dryline in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers on 11 Jun 2011

    (the arrow denotes the direction)

    表  1  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线信息

    Table  1  Convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    序号 发生时间 发生地点 伴随天气 环流背景
    1 2010-06-03T14:00,17:00 德州—淄博 雷阵雨 华北冷涡后部
    2 2010-06-17T14:00 濮阳南乐 雷阵雨 华北冷涡底部
    3 2010-07-07T14:00 原阳 雷阵雨 副热带高压外围偏西气流
    4 2011-06-08T14:00,17:00 商丘永城 雷阵雨 槽后西北气流
    5 2011-06-11T14:00,17:00 濮阳—商丘 雷阵雨、大风冰雹 华北冷涡底部
    6 2012-05-16T14:00 临沂—徐州 雷阵雨、大风 东北冷涡底部
    7 2012-05-25T14:00 保定东—泊头 雷阵雨、大风 东北冷涡后部
    8 2012-06-06T14:00,17:00 河北吴桥 雷阵雨 槽前
    9 2013-05-23T14:00 民权—扶沟 雷阵雨 槽前
    10 2014-06-10T14:00 保定—淄博 阵雨、大风 东北冷涡底部
    11 2015-08-22T14:00 安阳附近 阵雨、大风 东北冷涡底部
    12 2015-08-28T14:00 德州—泰山 阵雨、大风、冰雹 东北冷涡底部
    13 2017-04-20T14:00 河北山东交界 阵雨 东北冷涡后部
    14 2017-06-12T14:00 吴桥—济南 阵雨 脊前西北气流
    15 2018-06-13T14:00 新乡 阵雨、大风、冰雹 华北冷涡底部
    16 2019-05-10T14:00 邢台—安阳 阵雨、大风 偏西气流
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧探空参数统计

    Table  2  Soundings on both sides of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers from 2010 to 2019

    条件 要素 位置 平均值 25%百分位 75%百分位 最大值
    水汽条件 可降水量/cm 湿侧 2.5 2.0 3.2 4.0
    干侧 2.3 1.6 2.8 3.8
    700 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 3.2 1.0 5.0 7.0
    干侧 2.4 0.8 4.0 6.0
    850 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 5.6 3.8 8.0 11.0
    干侧 5.9 3.8 8.0 12.0
    925 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 9.4 7.3 11.0 19.0
    干侧 7.4 4.8 11.0 21.0
    热力不稳定 对流有效位能/(J·kg-1) 湿侧 2214 1725 3184 4348
    干侧 614 236 800 1910
    700 hPa与500 hPa温度差/℃ 湿侧 18.3 17.0 19.3 22.0
    干侧 18.2 17.0 20.0 20.0
    850 hPa与500 hPa温度差/℃ 湿侧 29.9 29.0 31.0 35.0
    干侧 29.6 27.8 32.0 33.0
    抬升指数/℃ 湿侧 -6.9 -7.9 -6.3 -1.5
    干侧 -2.2 -3.1 -0.6 0.5
    风切变 风矢量差/(m·s-1) 湿侧 12.5 7.5 17.5 24.5
    干侧 11.2 6.3 15.7 24.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2010—2019年黄淮地区触发对流天气的干线两侧ERA5再分析资料统计

    Table  3  Statistics of specific humidity and convective available potential energy on both sides of convection-triggering drylines in the drainage area of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers using ERA5 reanalysis from 2010 to 2019

    条件 要素 相对位置 平均值 25%百分位 75%百分位 最大值
    水汽条件 700 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 4.5 3.6 5.6 6.5
    干侧 4.2 3.4 5.0 6.5
    850 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 9.4 8.1 11.8 13.0
    干侧 8.1 6.8 9.6 12.5
    925 hPa比湿/(g·kg-1) 湿侧 10.2 9.3 12.6 14.0
    干侧 8.7 7.8 10.3 12.0
    热力不稳定条件 对流有效位能/(J·kg-1) 湿侧 1000 288 1550 2500
    干侧 331 100 325 1400
    700 hPa与500 hPa温度差/℃ 湿侧 17.8 16.6 18.9 21.6
    干侧 17.8 16.8 18.8 21.5
    850 hPa与500 hPa温度差/℃ 湿侧 29.2 27.9 30.4 34.5
    干侧 29.2 27.9 30.5 34.2
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-14
  • 修回日期:  2021-08-03
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-30

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