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模拟低温下主产品种猕猴桃结果母枝冻害指标

李化龙 王景红 张维敏 柏秦凤 潘宇鹰 张焘 权文婷 郭建平

李化龙, 王景红, 张维敏, 等. 模拟低温下主产品种猕猴桃结果母枝冻害指标. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(5): 618-628. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210509..
引用本文: 李化龙, 王景红, 张维敏, 等. 模拟低温下主产品种猕猴桃结果母枝冻害指标. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(5): 618-628. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210509.
Li Hualong, Wang Jinghong, Zhang Weimin, et al. Freezing injury index of kiwifruit branches for main varieties under simulated low temperature. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(5): 618-628. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210509.
Citation: Li Hualong, Wang Jinghong, Zhang Weimin, et al. Freezing injury index of kiwifruit branches for main varieties under simulated low temperature. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(5): 618-628. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210509.

模拟低温下主产品种猕猴桃结果母枝冻害指标

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20210509
资助项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2019YFD1002202

详细信息
    通信作者:

    张维敏, 邮箱: 404312067@qq.com

Freezing Injury Index of Kiwifruit Branches for Main Varieties Under Simulated Low Temperature

  • 摘要: 越冬冻害是猕猴桃的主要气象灾害,为探讨低温对猕猴桃的伤害机理,建立猕猴桃越冬冻害指标体系,2020年12月—2021年2月利用MSX-2F霜箱系统模拟越冬期低温过程,采用组织褐变率、细胞伤害率等参数对结果母枝冻害特征进行定量描述,通过冻害指数与低温的Logistic关系模型,研究6个主栽品种结果母枝冻害特征。结果表明:结果母枝主芽半致死温度以海沃德最低,为-16.5 ℃,瑞玉、徐香、金福居中,分别为-14.8 ℃,-14.9 ℃和-14.2 ℃,翠香、红阳较高,分别为-13.4 ℃,-13.8 ℃。-16 ℃~-10 ℃低温主要影响结果母枝主芽活性,-16 ℃为主芽受冻向副芽受冻的转折点,低于-18 ℃对主、副芽活性均有伤害,-20 ℃以下低温可造成结果母枝大量死亡。品种间抗冻性能,以海沃德最强,瑞玉、金福、徐香居中,翠香、红阳最弱。以结果母枝芽冻害指数为主要参数,构建6个主产品种猕猴桃结果母枝5级低温冻害指标,对应类型和温度阈值如下:1级为轻度减产型,-11.0 ℃~-10.5 ℃;2级为中度减产型,-14.5 ℃~-10.5 ℃;3级为重度减产型,-16.5 ℃~-12.0 ℃;4级为绝收型,-20.0 ℃~-13.5 ℃;5级为致死型,-20.0 ℃~-15.0 ℃。
  • 图  1  猕猴桃越冬期冻害过程温度变化曲线

    Fig. 1  Temperature of freezing injury during overwintering for kiwifruit

    图  2  不同强度冻害过程猕猴桃结果母枝芽存留率

    Fig. 2  The bud retention rates of kiwifruit branch under different freezing injury intensities

    图  3  不同强度冻害过程猕猴桃结果母枝芽冻伤率

    Fig. 3  The bud frostbite rates of kiwifruit branch under different freezing injury intensities

    图  4  不同强度冻害过程猕猴桃结果母枝芽褐变率

    Fig. 4  The bud browning rates of kiwifruit branch under different freezing injury intensities

    图  5  不同强度冻害过程猕猴桃结果母枝芽冻害指数

    Fig. 5  The bud freezing injury index of kiwifruit branch under different freezing injury intensities

    图  6  不同强度冻害过程下猕猴桃结果母枝冻害指数

    Fig. 6  The freezing injury index of kiwifruit branch under different freezing injury intensities

    图  7  不同低温强度下猕猴桃结果母枝细胞伤害率

    Fig. 7  The cell damage rates of kiwifruit branch under different low temperature intensities

    表  1  猕猴桃芽座、枝条冻害程度形态分级标准

    Table  1  Morphological grading standard of freeze injury degree of kiwifruit bud base and branch

    类别 冻害等级 冻害程度形态表现
    芽座 0 主芽正常萌发;或未萌发但芽座海绵体正常、主芽轴正常,芽座活性未受低温影响,为正常芽
    1 主芽芽轴褐变或干枯,不能萌发出结果枝,丧失结果能力;芽座海绵体正常,副芽存活,可萌发出营养枝,为冻伤芽
    2 主芽芽轴褐变或干枯,不能萌发出结果枝,丧失结果能力;芽座海绵体褐变,副芽也丧失萌发力,不能萌发出营养枝,影响次年结果,为褐变芽
    枝条 0 韧皮部鲜绿正常
    1 韧皮部大部绿色,局部褐变
    2 韧皮部大部褐变,局部存有绿色
    3 韧皮部失绿褐变
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同猕猴桃品种结果母枝过冷却点和结冰点温度

    Table  2  Temperatures of supercooling point and freezing point for different kiwifruit varieties

    温度 海沃德 徐香 金福 瑞玉 翠香 红阳
    过冷却点/℃ -3.2 -2.0 -1.7 -3.4 -1.7 -1.4
    结冰点/℃ -1.4 -0.8 -0.7 -1.8 -0.6 -0.2
    跃升值/℃ 1.8 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  猕猴桃芽座冻害指数与低温强度Logistic拟合方程

    Table  3  Logistic fitting equations between freezing injury index of kiwifruit bud base and low temperature intensity

    品种 拟合方程 半致死温度/℃ 拟合度
    翠香 F=100/(1+2461.96e0.75x)* -13.4 0.69
    海沃德 F=100/(1+240.06e0.43x)** -16.5 0.97
    红阳 F=100/(1+9541.10e0.85x)* -13.8 0.71
    金福 F=100/(1+16974.71e0.88x)** -14.2 0.84
    瑞玉 F=100/(1+454.54e0.53x)* -14.8 0.83
    徐香 F=100/(1+1642.33e0.64x)** -14.9 0.85
    注:**表示达到0.01显著性水平,*表示达到0.05显著性水平。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  6种猕猴桃结果母枝低温冻害分级指标

    Table  4  The grading indexes of low temperature freezing injury for 6 varieties of kiwifruit branch

    品种 结果母枝低温冻害等级温度(T/℃)
    1级 2级 3级 4级 5级
    翠香 T≥-10.5 -12.0 ≤T<-10.5 -13.5≤T<-12.0 -15.0≤T<-13.5 T<-15.0
    海沃德 T≥-11.5 -14.5≤T<-11.5 -16.5≤T<-14.5 -20.0≤T<-16.5 T<-20.0
    红阳 T≥-11.0 -13.0≤T<-11.0 -14.0≤T<-13.0 -15.5≤T<-14.0 T<-15.5
    金福 T≥-11.5 -13.0≤T<-11.5 -14.0≤T<-13.0 -16.0≤T<-14.0 T<-16.0
    瑞玉 T≥-10.5 -13.0≤T<-10.5 -15.0≤T<-13.0 -17.5≤T<-15.0 T<-17.5
    徐香 T≥-11.5 -13.5≤T<-11.5 -15.0≤T<-13.5 -17.0≤T<-15.0 T<-17.0
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-06
  • 修回日期:  2021-06-04
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-30

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