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青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征和降水形成机制

常祎 郭学良 唐洁 卢广献 亓鹏

常祎, 郭学良, 唐洁, 等. 青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征和降水形成机制. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(6): 720-734.DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210607..
引用本文: 常祎, 郭学良, 唐洁, 等. 青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征和降水形成机制. 应用气象学报, 2021, 32(6): 720-734. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210607.
Chang Yi, Guo Xueliang, Tang Jie, et al. Microphysical characteristics and precipitation formation mechanisms of convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(6): 720-734. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210607.
Citation: Chang Yi, Guo Xueliang, Tang Jie, et al. Microphysical characteristics and precipitation formation mechanisms of convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(6): 720-734. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210607.

青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征和降水形成机制

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20210607
资助项目: 

第二次青藏高原综合科学考察 2019QZKK0104

国家自然基金青年科学基金项目 42005070

中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费 2020Y010

公益性行业(气象)科研重大专项 GYHY201406001

详细信息
    通信作者:

    郭学良, 邮箱: guoxl@mail.iap.ac.cn

Microphysical Characteristics and Precipitation Formation Mechanisms of Convective Clouds over the Tibetan Plateau in Summer

  • 摘要: 青藏高原对我国天气、气候和水循环过程有重要影响。利用第三次青藏高原大气科学试验(TIPEX-Ⅲ)2014年7月在那曲地区的飞机观测数据,研究青藏高原夏季对流云和降水的微物理特征及降水形成机制。飞机探测的云系主要为初生或发展阶段的冰水混合云,云滴数浓度低于平原、海洋地区1~2个量级,云内存在大量大云滴和雨滴,过冷水含量高。大粒子(D≥50 μm)数浓度量级为100~101 L-1,云内上升气流速度集中在1~4 m·s-1。青藏高原云滴谱主要呈双峰型,云内冰相粒子多为密实、不透明的霰粒子,云内凇附过程显著。云内暖雨过程产生的大云滴和雨滴有利于冰相过程,尤其是凇附过程的产生,使得青藏高原云更易产生降水。此外,残留云系与对流云有着较为类似的微物理特征。
  • 图  1  2014年夏季TIPEX-Ⅲ期间那曲地区外场观测概况

    (红色方框区域为主要飞机观测区域,×和+分别为那曲气象局和那曲中信大酒店观测点)

    Fig. 1  Observation field of TIPEX-Ⅲ at Naqu during summer of 2014

    (the red rectangle indicates the region of aircraft measurements, × and + are two observation sites at Naqu Meteorological Bureau and Naqu Zhongxin Hotel)

    图  2  2014年7月3日初始对流云探测(a)Nevzorov探测的LWC和TWC,(b)FCDP探头探测的小云粒子数浓度(黑色实线) 和谱(填色) 分布

    (图中A1,A2,A3为对同一个对流云的3次穿越观测结果,B1为另一对流云的探测结果)

    Fig. 2  Aircraft observations of newly born convective cells on 3 Jul 2014 (a)cloud liquid water content and total water content derived from Nevzorov, (b)cloud particle number concentration (the black solid line) and drop size distribution (the shaded) derived from FCDP

    (A1, A2, and A3 represent 3 penetrations of the same cells while B1 denotes a different cell)

    图  3  2014年7月10日发展对流云探测(a)飞机探测高度和温度,(b)液态水含量,(c)HVPS探测的大云粒子数浓度,(d)FCDP探测的小云粒子数浓度,(e)图 3d对应时刻的云滴谱分布

    Fig. 3  Aircraft measurements of developing convective clouds on 10 Jul 2014 (a)altitude and air temperature of the flight measurement procedure, (b)LWC, (c)concentration of large particles derived from HVPS, (d)concentration of small particles derived from FCDP, (e)cloud drop size distributions of the sampled periods shown in Fig. 3d

    图  4  2014年7月13日发展对流云探测(a)飞行高度和温度(实线) 与飞行轨迹上C波段业务雷达回波(填色) 随时间演变,(b)LWC与TWC,(c)HVPS探测的大云粒子数浓度,(d)FCDP探测的小云粒子数浓度

    Fig. 4  Aircraft measurements of developing convective clouds on 13 Jul 2014 (a)altitude and temperature (the solid line) and reflectivity (the shaded) of C-band operational radar along the flight trajectory, (b)LWC and TWC retrieved from Nevzorov, (c)concentration of large particles derived from HVPS, (d)concentration of small particles derived from FCDP

    图  5  2014年7月13日飞机观测不同高度的粒子图像

    Fig. 5  Particle images of different altitudes on 13 Jul 2014

    图  6  2014年7月3日、10日、13日FCDP探头探测到的典型对流云滴谱分布

    (图中所选滴谱均位于云内过冷水区)

    Fig. 6  Particle size distributions of convective clouds obtained by FCDP at typical temperatures for cases on 3, 10, 13 Jul in 2014

    (all particle size distributions refer to convective clouds with only supercooled liquid water)

    图  7  2014年TIPEX-Ⅲ期间残留云系C波段连续波雷达反射率因子随时间变化

    (图中红色线为飞机飞行高度随时间变化)

    Fig. 7  Height-time distributions of radar defectivities of residual clouds and altitude of flight trajactories

    (red lines represent altitude of flight)

    图  8  2014年7月21日飞机探测结果(a)Nevzorov探测的LWC和TWC,(b)2D-S探测的粒子数浓度及谱分布,(c)HVPS探测的粒子数浓度及谱分布,(d)FCDP探测的粒子数浓度及滴谱分布

    Fig. 8  Results of residual cloud case on 20 Jul 2014 (a)LWC and TWC obtained by Nevzorov, (b)concentrations and spectra obtained by 2D-S, (c)concentrations and spectra obtained by HPVS, (d)concentrations and spectra obtained by FCDP

    表  1  2014年TIPEX-Ⅲ期间6次飞机观测个例的飞行高度、温度和探测云类型

    Table  1  Flight altitudes, temperatures, and cloud types of six cases during TIPEX-Ⅲ, 2014

    日期 飞行高度/m 温度/℃ 云类型
    07-03 5728~7634 -11.7~-1.0 初始对流云
    07-10 6286~6954 -6.6~-2.4 发展阶段对流云
    07-13 6293~7959 -13.1~-2.4 发展阶段对流云
    07-20 6279~8933 -17.1~-2.1 残留云系
    07-21 6278~8938 -17.3~-2.4 残留云系
    07-24 6280~8145 -14.8~-4.4 发展阶段对流云
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  TIPEX-Ⅲ飞机观测期间小云粒子(D < 550 μm) 数浓度、大云粒子(D≥50 μm) 数浓度、LWC和TWC及V的最大值、最小值和数量级统计结果

    Table  2  Maximum, average and order of magnitude values of cloud particle concentrations with D < 50 μm and D≥50 μm and LWC, TWC and V values during the TIPEX-Ⅲ

    统计项目 小云粒子数浓度/L-1 大云粒子数浓度/L-1 LWC/(g·m-3) TWC/(g·m-3) V/(m·s-1)
    最大值 1.1×105 28.82 0.25 1.33 4.3
    最小值 (9±10)×103 (7±19)×10-1
    数量级 104 100~101 10-1~100 10-1~100 1~4
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-12
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