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基于大涡模拟的冬奥赛区风环境精细化评估

刘郁珏 黄倩倩 张涵斌 苗世光

刘郁珏, 黄倩倩, 张涵斌, 等. 基于大涡模拟的冬奥赛区风环境精细化评估. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(2): 129-141. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220201..
引用本文: 刘郁珏, 黄倩倩, 张涵斌, 等. 基于大涡模拟的冬奥赛区风环境精细化评估. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(2): 129-141. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220201.
Liu Yujue, Huang Qianqian, Zhang Hanbin, et al. Refined assessment of wind environment over Winter Olympic competition zone based on large eddy simulation. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(2): 129-141. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220201.
Citation: Liu Yujue, Huang Qianqian, Zhang Hanbin, et al. Refined assessment of wind environment over Winter Olympic competition zone based on large eddy simulation. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(2): 129-141. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220201.

基于大涡模拟的冬奥赛区风环境精细化评估

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20220201
资助项目: 

中国气象局创新发展专项 CXF2021Z014

国家自然科学基金项目 41705006

国家重点研发计划 2018YFF0300100

详细信息
    通信作者:

    苗世光, 邮箱: sgmiao@ium.cn

Refined Assessment of Wind Environment over Winter Olympic Competition Zone Based on Large Eddy Simulation

  • 摘要: 风是北京冬奥会场外赛事考虑的首要气象因素, 精细评估竞赛场地核心区域风环境对赛道施工建设、遴选防风方案及赛事安排非常必要。以北京冬奥会延庆赛区为中心, 将2009—2021年冬奥赛事月份(2—3月)天气环流场进行客观天气环流分型(分为93组), 采用北京城市气象研究院睿图-大涡模式系统对各组的典型个例开展37 m×37 m分辨率风场模拟。利用赛道周边12个自动气象站数据检验结果显示: 2 m温度、10 m风速和风向平均偏差分别为0.45℃, 1.51 m·s-1, 11.23°, 预报技巧较高。基于分型模拟数据获得赛场平均风、极大风分布及大风风险概率, 高山滑雪赛场赛道起点平均风速为15 m·s-1, 超出影响决策点概率为60%, 风险较大; 而赛道中、后段风险较小, 超过影响决策风速概率小于2%。
  • 图  1  延庆赛区睿图-大涡模拟区域嵌套设置和区域地形

    (a)d01~d04,(b)d04 (⊙和☆为自动气象站)

    Fig. 1  Computational domain for RMAPS-LES of Yanqing competition zone with the terrain elevation and state boundaries

    (a)d01-d04, (b)d04 (⊙ and ☆ denote automatic weather stations)

    图  2  L-J分型区域及计算差分格点(黑色圆点) 分布

    (红色圆点表示赛场中心点)

    Fig. 2  Domain and 16 grid points (black dots) for L-J circulation type classification

    (the red dot denotes the center of competition zone)

    图  3  2009—2021年2—3月延庆赛区大类环流型分布

    (图中百分数表示占比)

    Fig. 3  Main circulation types from Feb to Mar during 2009-2021 of Yanqing competition zone

    (the percentage denotes the proportion)

    图  4  2009—2021年2—3月延庆赛区中心点700 hPa风玫瑰图

    Fig. 4  Wind rose of 700 hPa at the center of Yanqing competition zone from Feb to Mar during 2009-2021

    图  5  自动气象站2 m温度、10 m风速和风向检验结果

    (点为平均偏差,须为标准差)
    (a)31种小类环流型2 m温度检验结果,(b)不同风速组2 m温度检验结果,(c)31种小类环流型10 m风速检验结果,(d)不同风速组10 m风速检验结果,(e)31种小类环流型10 m风向检验结果,(d)不同风速组10 m风向检验结果

    Fig. 5  Errors of 2 m temperature and 10 m wind speed, direction at automatic weather stations

    (the marker denotes the median error, the whisker denotes the standard deviation of error)
    (a)2 m temperature of 31 secondary circulation types, (b)2 m temperature of three wind speed groups, (c)10 m wind speed of 31 secondary circulation types, (d)10 m wind speed of three wind speed groups, (e)10 m wind direction of 31 secondary circulation types, (f)10 m wind direction of three wind speed groups

    图  6  高山滑雪赛场平均风分布

    (上方为叠加地形的三维图,下方为俯视平面图,白色圆点为自动气象站)

    Fig. 6  Average wind speed distribution of alpine skiing field

    (the upper part of plot is a three-dimensional map in the region alpine skiing field, the bottom part shows the top view in planar, white dots denote automatic weather stations)

    图  7  高山滑雪赛场极大风分布

    (其他说明同图 6)

    Fig. 7  Maximum wind speed distribution of alpine skiing field

    (the others same as in Fig. 6)

    图  8  全风速组情况下,高山滑雪赛场风速超出影响赛事风速阈值的风险概率分布

    (其他说明同图 6)
    (a)影响决策风速11 m·s-1,(b)重点影响风速14 m·s-1,(c)关键影响风速17 m·s-1

    Fig. 8  Probability of wind speed exceeding the threshold of alpine skiing of all wind speed groups

    (the others same as in Fig. 6)
    (a)critical decision point 11 m·s-1, (b)significant decision point 14 m·s-1, (c)factor to consider 17 m·s-1

    图  9  仅小风速组情况下,高山滑雪赛场风速超出影响赛事风速阈值的风险概率分布

    (其他说明同图 6)
    (a)影响决策风速11 m·s-1,(b)重点影响风速14 m·s-1,(c)关键影响风速17 m·s-1

    Fig. 9  Probability of wind speed exceeding the threshold of alpine skiing of small wind speed group

    (the others same as in Fig. 6)
    (a)critical decision point 11 m·s-1, (b)significant decision point 14 m·s-1, (c)factor to consider 17 m·s-1

    表  1  L-J环流型分类

    Table  1  L-J circulation classification scheme

    条件 大类环流型 小类环流型
    |ξ| < V 平直气流型D DE(1),DS(4),DSW(6),DWSW(11),
    DWNW(16),DNW(21),DNWN(26),DN(29)
    V≤|ξ|≤2Vξ≥0 气旋-平直气流混合型C-h C-hE,C-hS,C-hSW(7),C-hWSW(12),
    C-hWNW(17),C-hNW(22),C-hNWN,C-hN
    V≤|ξ|≤2Vξ < 0 反气旋-平直气流混合型A-h A-hE(2),A-hS,A-hSW(8),A-hWSW(13),
    A-hWNW(18),A-hNW(23),A-hNWN(27),A-hN(30)
    |ξ|>2Vξ≥0 气旋型C CE,CS(5),CSW(9),CWSW(14),
    CWNW(19),CNW(24),CNWN,CN
    |ξ|>2Vξ < 0 反气旋型A AE(3),AS,ASW(10),AWSW(15),
    AWNW(20),ANW(25),ANWN(28),AN(31)
    注:括号内数字表示小类环流型序号。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2009—2021年2—3月延庆赛区小类环流型

    Table  2  Secondary circulation types from Feb to Mar during 2009-2021 of Yanqing competition zone

    风向 大类环流型
    D C-h A-h C A
    E 13 0 6 0 6
    S 42 2 5 7 2
    SW 80 13 6 19 9
    WSW 197 45 23 54 42
    WNW 430 89 139 71 145
    NW 331 43 247 37 187
    NWN 189 5 180 5 152
    N 71 0 85 0 84
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  RMAPS-LES物理参数化方案

    Table  3  Schemes used in RMAPS-LES simulations

    参数化方案 d01 d02 d03 d04
    边界层方案 YSU LES LES LES
    微物理方案 New Thompson New Thompson New Thompson New Thompson
    长、短波辐射方案 RRTMG RRTMG RRTMG RRTMG
    近地层方案 Revised MM5 Revised MM5 Revised MM5 Revised MM5
    陆面过程方案 Noah Noah Noah Noah
    积云方案 Kain-Fritsch
    下载: 导出CSV
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