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2021年黑龙江两次超级单体龙卷过程多尺度特征

徐玥 邵美荣 唐凯 张礼宝 杜静 王永超

徐玥, 邵美荣, 唐凯, 等. 2021年黑龙江两次超级单体龙卷过程多尺度特征. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(3): 305-318. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220305..
引用本文: 徐玥, 邵美荣, 唐凯, 等. 2021年黑龙江两次超级单体龙卷过程多尺度特征. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(3): 305-318. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220305.
Xu Yue, Shao Meirong, Tang Kai, et al. Multiscale Characteristics of Two Supercell Tornados of Heilongjiang in 2021. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(3): 305-318. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220305.
Citation: Xu Yue, Shao Meirong, Tang Kai, et al. Multiscale Characteristics of Two Supercell Tornados of Heilongjiang in 2021. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(3): 305-318. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220305.

2021年黑龙江两次超级单体龙卷过程多尺度特征

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20220305
资助项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFC1507301

详细信息
    通信作者:

    张礼宝,邮箱:123589969@qq.com

Multiscale Characteristics of Two Supercell Tornados of Heilongjiang in 2021

  • 摘要: 2021年6月1日和6月9日黑龙江省哈尔滨尚志市及阿城区和齐齐哈尔梅里斯区分别发生双龙卷事件。利用常规气象观测、多普勒天气雷达等资料对比分析二者的多尺度特征。结果表明:两次龙卷均发生在东北冷涡的东南象限,高空急流出口区左侧,中低层偏南气流有利于暖湿气流输送和垂直运动发展。6月1日和6月9日分别以短时强降水和雷暴大风天气为主,6月1日水汽条件、垂直运动、0~1 km高度垂直风切变和抬升凝结高度更有利于产生强龙卷,且中尺度气旋维持时间更长。干线与地面辐合线为中尺度触发机制。雷暴冷池出流与中尺度暖锋形成的伪冷锋有利于龙卷的发展和维持。龙卷出现在地面伪冷锋与干线交界处的湿区一侧,冷池前沿,龙卷母云为超级单体。暖湿气流产生的入流缺口是钩状回波发展的前兆,中等到高强度的中尺度气旋在3 km高度产生并发展,5~10 min后触地,当钩状回波与中尺度气旋同时出现时龙卷产生。
  • 图  1  2021年“6·1”龙卷和“6·9”龙卷的移动路径

    Fig. 1  Tracks of "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado in 2021

    图  2  2021年“6·1”龙卷和“6·9”龙卷照片

    Fig. 2  Pictures of "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado in 2021

    图  3  2021年“6·1”龙卷和“6·9”龙卷的500 hPa高度场(蓝色等值线,单位:dagpm)、850 hPa温度场(红色等值线,单位:℃)、850 hPa风场(风羽)和850 hPa相对湿度(填色)分布(红点为龙卷位置)

    Fig. 3  The geopotential height(the blue contour, unit: dagpm) at 500 hPa, the air temperature(the red contour, unit: ℃), wind(the barb) and the relative humidity(the shaded) at 850 hPa for "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado in 2021(the red spot denotes the tornado location)

    图  4  2021年“6·1”龙卷和“6·9”龙卷地面中尺度特征

    (蓝色实线为冷池,红色实线为中尺度暖锋,黑色实线为露点温度)

    Fig. 4  Surface mesoscale characteristics of "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado

    (the blue line denotes the cool pool, the red line denotes the mesoscale warm front, the black line denotes the dew point temperature)

    图  5  2021年6月1日16:58—17:54哈尔滨雷达“6·1”龙卷的0.5°仰角反射率因子和径向速度演变

    (黄色箭头代表入流,蓝色箭头代表出流)

    Fig. 5  Evolution of reflectivity and radial velocity at 0.5° elevation of Harbin radar for "6·1" Tornado during 1658-1754 BT on 1 Jun 2021

    (the yellow arrow denotes inflow, the blue arrow denotes outflow)

    图  6  2021年6月9日16:42齐齐哈尔雷达的“6·9”龙卷超级单体和不同仰角的中尺度气旋

    (环圈内为速度模糊,黄色箭头代表入流,蓝色箭头代表出流)

    Fig. 6  Multiple supercell and mesocyclones at different elevations of Qiqihar radar for "6·9" Tornado at 1642 BT 9 Jun 2021

    (the circle denotes velocity ambiguity, the yellow arrow denotes inflow, the blue arrow denotes outflow)

    图  7  “6·1”龙卷和“6·9”龙卷的中尺度气旋底高、顶高及垂直积分液态水含量

    Fig. 7  Base and top heights of mesocyclones and vertical integrated liquid water content for "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado

    表  1  2021年“6·1”龙卷、“6·9”龙卷订正前后探空参数

    Table  1  Sounding parameters before and after correction for "6·1" Tornado and "6·9" Tornado

    日期 探空时间(低层水汽状态) 订正时间 订正站点 CAPE/(J·kg-1) CIN/(J·kg-1) LCL/m
    2021-06-01 08:00 08:00 哈尔滨 97 13 310
    (湿区) 16:00 尚志 429 0 770
    20:00 16:00 哈尔滨 493 0 1528
    (干区) 20:00 哈尔滨 15 230 1785
    2021-06-09 08:00 08:00 齐齐哈尔 137 0 487
    (湿区) 16:00 齐齐哈尔 2569 0 1116
    20:00 18:00 齐齐哈尔 483 0 1863
    (干区) 20:00 齐齐哈尔 938 0 1487
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-28
  • 修回日期:  2022-03-21
  • 刊出日期:  2022-05-31

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