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“21·7”河南暴雨环境场及云的宏微观特征

高洋 蔡淼 曹治强 田林 王曦

高洋, 蔡淼, 曹治强, 等. “21·7”河南暴雨环境场及云的宏微观特征. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(6): 682-695. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220604..
引用本文: 高洋, 蔡淼, 曹治强, 等. “21·7”河南暴雨环境场及云的宏微观特征. 应用气象学报, 2022, 33(6): 682-695. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220604.
Gao Yang, Cai Miao, Cao Zhiqiang, et al. Environmental conditions and cloud macro and micro features of “21·7” extreme heavy rainfall in Henan Province. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(6): 682-695. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220604.
Citation: Gao Yang, Cai Miao, Cao Zhiqiang, et al. Environmental conditions and cloud macro and micro features of “21·7” extreme heavy rainfall in Henan Province. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(6): 682-695. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220604.

“21·7”河南暴雨环境场及云的宏微观特征

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20220604
资助项目: 

风云卫星应用先行计划 FY-APP-2021.0102

风云卫星应用先行计划 FY-APP-2022.0111

风云卫星应用先行计划 FY-APP-2022.0113

详细信息
    通信作者:

    蔡淼, 邮箱: caimiao@cma.gov.cn

Environmental Conditions and Cloud Macro and Micro Features of "21·7" Extreme Heavy Rainfall in Henan Province

  • 摘要: 利用FY-4A静止气象卫星、FY-3D极轨气象卫星资料和ERA5再分析资料,深入分析“21·7”河南暴雨环境场及云宏微观特征,首次利用FY-4A观测研究此次事件对流云微物理特征。结果表明:“21·7”河南暴雨是一次极端强降水事件,河南省位于大陆高压和副热带高压之间的鞍型场内,有利于其上空低涡云系的发展和维持。2021年7月20日两股水汽输送交汇于河南中北部,为郑州极端降水提供了有利条件。20日14:00—16:00(北京时,下同)郑州长时间位于对流云团冷云区边界亮温梯度大值区,该时段对流发展旺盛;12:00—14:00云光学厚度跃增,且在15:00仍维持较大值,表明该时段云中液态粒子大量合并,液态水含量丰富,光学厚度峰值出现时间先于降水量峰值出现时间,FY-4A云光学厚度跃增且维持较大值对强降水出现时间及量级有重要的预警意义。对流云粒子有效半径(re)随温度(T)的增长曲线(T-re关系)表明:20日16:00河南上空的雨胚形成区最为深厚,云中不同高度的re整体维持在20~25 μm,表明云中上升气流较强,有利于地面强降水发生。
  • 图  1  2021年7月18—23日累积降水量分布

    Fig. 1  Spatial distribution of precipitation from 18 Jul to 23 Jul in 2021

    图  2  2021年7月20—21日FY-4A水汽通道亮温(灰度)和ERA5 500 hPa位势高度(蓝色等值线,单位:dagpm)

    Fig. 2  Brightness temperature(the grey) of FY-4A water vapor channel and ERA5 500 hPa height(the blue contour, unit:dagpm) from 20 Jul to 21 Jul in 2021

    图  3  2021年7月20—21日FY-3D 850 hPa日平均比湿(填色)及ERA5 850 hPa风场(矢量)分布

    Fig. 3  Spatial distribution of daily specific humidity of FY-3D(the shaded) and ERA5 850 hPa wind(the vector) from 20 Jul to 21 Jul in 2021

    图  4  2021年7月20日13:00—20:00 FY-4A长波红外通道亮温

    (郑州站以黑色圆点标出, 红色实线为亮温-52℃等值线)

    Fig. 4  Brightness temperature of FY-4A long wave infrared channel from 1300 BT to 2000 BT 20 Jul in 2021

    (the black dot denotes Zhengzhou Station, the red line denotes -52℃)

    图  5  2021年7月20日08:00—21日08:00 FY-4A云宏观特征和郑州站逐小时降水量

    (a)云顶高度和降水量,(b)长波红外通道亮温和降水量

    Fig. 5  FY-4A cloud macro characteristics and hourly precipitation of Zhengzhou from 0800 BT 20 Jul to 0800 BT 21 Jul in 2021

    (a)cloud top height and precipitation, (b)brightness temperature of long wave infrared channel and precipitation

    图  6  2021年7月20日08:00—21日08:00 FY-4A云微物理特征和郑州站逐小时降水量特征

    (a)云粒子有效半径和降水量,(b)云光学厚度和降水量

    Fig. 6  FY-4A cloud microphysical characteristics and hourly precipitation of Zhengzhou Station from 0800 BT 20 Jul to 0800 BT 21 Jul in 2021

    (a)cloud droplet effective radius and precipitation, (b)cloud optical thickness and precipitation

    图  7  2018—2021年夏季河南省FY-4A云光学厚度与其后1 h累积降水量箱线图

    (方框的上边界和下边界分别表示总样本75%和25%比例的数值,方框中实线代表总样本的中位数的数值,上下虚线端点分别表示占总样本90%和10%比例的数值)

    Fig. 7  Box-plot of FY-4A cloud optical thickness for 1 h rainfall(unit:mm) in Henan in summer of 2018-2021

    (the upper and lower boundaries of the box denote 75 and 25 percentiles;the median is denoted by the horizontal line inside the box;90 and 10 percentiles of values are denoted by the top and bottom ends of the whiskers, respectively)

    图  8  2021年7月20日FY-4A云顶温度

    (标有数字的黑色方框为T-re图云微物理特征分析所选的代表区域)

    Fig. 8  FY-4A cloud top temperature on 20 Jul 2021

    (black boxes with numbers denote the typical cloud areas for T-re analysis)

    图  9  图 8中所选区域对流云团对应的T-re

    (灰色曲线为样本量,对应上横坐标值;不同颜色的曲线表示不同比例有效样本量下reT变化) (a)区域1, 10:00,(b)区域2, 12:00,(c)区域3, 14:00,(d)区域4,16:00

    Fig. 9  Temperature and cloud droplet effective radius for the convective cloud clusters in the selected zone marked in Fig.8

    (the grey line denotes the number of samples, corresponding to the upper x-axis;curves with different colors denote variations of re with T under different proportion of samples) (a)zone 1, 1000 BT, (b)zone 2, 1200 BT, (c)zone 3, 1400 BT, (d)zone 4, 1600 BT

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-17
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-21
  • 刊出日期:  2022-11-17

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