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辽宁省温带气旋龙卷的环境参数特征

白华 袁潮 潘晓 杨磊 李得勤

白华, 袁潮, 潘晓, 等. 辽宁省温带气旋龙卷的环境参数特征. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(1): 104-116. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230109..
引用本文: 白华, 袁潮, 潘晓, 等. 辽宁省温带气旋龙卷的环境参数特征. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(1): 104-116. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230109.
Bai Hua, Yuan Chao, Pan Xiao, et al. Environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclone tornadoes in Liaoning. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(1): 104-116. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230109.
Citation: Bai Hua, Yuan Chao, Pan Xiao, et al. Environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclone tornadoes in Liaoning. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(1): 104-116. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230109.

辽宁省温带气旋龙卷的环境参数特征

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20230109
资助项目: 

中国气象局沈阳大气环境研究所开放基金 2017SYIAE12

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC1507301

环渤海科技协同创新项目 QYXM202101

中国气象局创新发展专项 CXFZ2022J059

东北冷涡研究重点开放实验室开放基金 2022SYIAEKFMS05

详细信息
    通信作者:

    袁潮, 邮箱: yuanchao_mare@163.com

Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclone Tornadoes in Liaoning

  • 摘要: 利用欧洲中期天气预报中心ERA5再分析数据, 统计1979—2020年辽宁省42个温带气旋龙卷环境背景和物理量参数特征, 结果表明:辽宁省温带气旋龙卷多发于温带气旋中心的西南、东南象限, 与冷锋前暖区相对应, 主要分布在辽河平原中西部及渤海湾沿岸, 强龙卷(EF2及以上级别)占比为28.6%。风暴相对螺旋度和对流有效位能的大值区出现在气旋西南—东南象限, 呈带状分布, 龙卷风暴主要分布于风暴相对螺旋度大值区西北侧、对流有效位能大值区的顶端的强梯度区附近。强龙卷参数最大值达0.7, 其大值区与EF2及以上级别龙卷相对应。地面冷锋和干线是温带气旋龙卷的关键触发系统, 对比近气旋中心和冷锋尾部湿度垂直分布, 后者所表现的高层强干侵入导致风暴产生更强的冷池, 过强的下沉气流可能是龙卷产生的不利因素。温带气旋龙卷多分布于高空急流左侧气流的分流区内, 对应高空强辐散区。0~3 km垂直温度递减率大值区与气旋中心附近的弱龙卷高发区有较好对应关系。
  • 图  1  2020年6—8月锦州站探空与ERA5对比

    Fig. 1  Sounding and ERA5 at Jinzhou Station from Jun to Aug in 2020

    图  2  1979—2020年辽宁省温带气旋龙卷分布

    (填色为海拔高度;蓝色标记为龙卷)

    Fig. 2  Distribution of extratropical cyclone tornado in Liaoning from 1979 to 2020

    (the shaded denotes altitude;the blue mark denotes tornado)

    图  3  龙卷相对温带气旋中心分布

    (黑色等值线为900 hPa位势高度,单位:dagpm;风羽为900 hPa风场;填色为900 hPa相对涡度;蓝色标记为龙卷;蓝色等值线为龙卷分布的核密度估计,最内圈为90%,最外圈为10%;气旋中心位于(0, 0))

    Fig. 3  Spatial distribution of tornado relative to the center of extratropical cyclone

    (the black isoline denotes the height at 900 hPa, unit:dagpm;the barb denotes wind at 900 hPa; the shaded denotes relative vorticity at 900 hPa; the blue mark denotes tornado;the blue isoline denotes the kernel density estimation of tornadoes, the innermost(outermost) circle is 90%(10%); the center of extratropical cyclone is located at (0, 0))

    图  4  产生龙卷的温带气旋附近的0~1 km风暴相对螺旋度(填色) 分布

    (黑色等值线为900 hPa位势高度,单位:dagpm;风羽为900 hPa风场;蓝色标记为龙卷;气旋中心位于(0, 0))

    Fig. 4  Distribution of 0-1 km storm relative helicity (the shaded) near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the black isoline denotes the height at 900 hPa, unit:dagpm;the barb denotes wind at 900 hPa; the blue mark denotes tornado;the center of extratropical cyclone is located at (0, 0))

    图  5  产生龙卷的温带气旋附近对流有效位能(填色) 分布

    (其他说明同图 4)

    Fig. 5  Distribution of convective available potential energy (the shaded) near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the others same as in Fig. 4)

    图  6  温带气旋附近的强龙卷参数(填色) 分布

    (其他说明同图 4)

    Fig. 6  Distribution of strong tonado parameter (the shaded) near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the others same as in Fig. 4)

    图  7  产生龙卷的温带气旋附近地面2 m温度(填色) (a)、2 m露点(填色) (b)分布

    (黑色等值线为海平面气压场,单位:hPa;风羽为地面10 m风场;蓝色标记为龙卷;气旋中心位于(0, 0))

    Fig. 7  Distribution of temperature at 2 m (the shaded) (a), dew point temperature at 2 m (the shaded) (b) near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the black isoline denotes the sea level pressure, unit:hPa;the barb denotes the wind at 10 m; the blue mark denotes tornado;the center of extratropical cyclone is located at (0, 0))

    图  8  沿图 7a中AA′(a)及BB′(b)的空间垂直剖面

    (红色等值线为温度,单位:℃;黑色等值线为垂直速度,单位:10 Pa·s-1;填色代表相对湿度)

    Fig. 8  Spatial vertical section along AA′(a) and BB′(b) in Fig. 7a

    (the red isoline denotes temperature, unit:℃;the black isoline denotes the vertical speed, unit:10 Pa·s-1;the shaded denotes the relative humidity)

    图  9  产生龙卷的温带气旋附近200 hPa形势场

    (黑色等值线为200 hPa位势高度,单位:dagpm;棕色等值线为200 hPa等风速线,单位:m·s-1;蓝色等值线为90%龙卷核密度分布估计;风矢为200 hPa风场;填色为200 hPa散度)

    Fig. 9  Distribution of weather situation field at 200 hPa near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the black isoline denotes the height at 200 hPa, unit:dagpm;the brown isoline denotes the velocity at 200 hPa, unit:m·s-1;the blue isoline denotes 90% kernel density estimation of tornadoes; the vector denotes the wind at 200 hPa; the shaded denotes the divergence at 200 hPa)

    图  10  产生龙卷的温带气旋附近地面至3 km高度温差(填色)

    (其他说明同图 4)

    Fig. 10  Distribution of temperature difference from ground to 3 km (the shaded) near tornadic extratropical cyclone

    (the others same as in Fig. 4)

    图  11  辽宁省温带气旋龙卷典型天气流型概念模型

    Fig. 11  Typical synoptic patterns of extratropical cyclone tornado in Liaoning

    表  1  1979—2020年辽宁省温带气旋龙卷

    Table  1  Extratropical cyclone tornado in Liaoning from 1979 to 2020

    序号 时间 龙卷发生地 强度等级 来源
    1 1980-06-20 兴城 EF2 《中国气象灾害大典》(辽宁卷)
    2 1980-07-21 辽阳县 EF2 《中国气象灾害大典》(辽宁卷)
    3 1983-07-04 瓦房店 EF0 地面观测
    4 1983-07-21 瓦房店 EF1 《中国气象灾害大典》(辽宁卷)
    5 1983-09-14 普兰店 EF1 《中国气象灾害大典》(辽宁卷)
    6 1983-09-14 绥中 EF2 《中国气象灾害大典》(辽宁卷)
    7 1984-05-27 义县 EF2 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    8 1984-06-09 喀左 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    9 1985-06-10 建昌 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    10 1986-07-14 苏家屯 EF2 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    11 1986-07-14 黑山 EF2 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    12 1986-07-14 葫芦岛 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    13 1986-07-22 阜新县 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    14 1986-08-08 康平 EF2 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    15 1986-08-12 阜新县 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    16 1987-06-19 朝阳县 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    17 1987-07-13 营口 EF0 地面观测
    18 1988-09-06 北票 EF1 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    19 1988-09-06 阜新县 EF2 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    20 1989-06-24 阜新县 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    21 1989-05-18 阜新县 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    22 1990-06-22 大洼 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    23 1990-08-12 辽阳县 EF3 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    24 1991-07-15 阜新县 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    25 1992-08-10 黑山 EF2 《辽宁省志》(气象志)
    26 1993-06-06 葫芦岛 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    27 1993-06-07 新民 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    28 1993-08-12 彰武 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    29 1996-09-19 庄河 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    30 1998-05-26 康平 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    31 2000-07-13 葫芦岛 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    32 2000-08-23 黑山 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    33 2002-07-31 辽中 EF1 地面观测
    34 2005-06-01 绥中 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    35 2005-06-10 朝阳县 EF3 《中国气象灾害年鉴》
    36 2005-06-11 沈阳 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    37 2005-07-01 盘山 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    38 2005-08-10 盖州 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    39 2010-07-27 彰武 EF1 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    40 2012-06-04 铁岭县 EF2 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    41 2012-07-02 大连 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
    42 2013-09-06 大连 EF0 县级历史气象灾情收集资料
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-27
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-24
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-31

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