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反极性云闪的初始击穿特征

高攀亮 史东东 吴亭 王道洪 纪晓玲

高攀亮, 史东东, 吴亭, 等. 反极性云闪的初始击穿特征. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(3): 324-335. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230306..
引用本文: 高攀亮, 史东东, 吴亭, 等. 反极性云闪的初始击穿特征. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(3): 324-335. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230306.
Gao Panliang, Shi Dongdong, Wu Ting, et al. Characteristics of the preliminary breakdown in inverted-polarity intracloud lightning flashes. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(3): 324-335. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230306.
Citation: Gao Panliang, Shi Dongdong, Wu Ting, et al. Characteristics of the preliminary breakdown in inverted-polarity intracloud lightning flashes. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(3): 324-335. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230306.

反极性云闪的初始击穿特征

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20230306
资助项目: 

宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划重点项目 2020BDE02006

银川市科技创新项目 2022GX08

中国科学院大气物理研究所中层大气和全球环境探测重点实验室开放课题 LAGEO-2022-06

详细信息
    通信作者:

    高攀亮, 邮箱:9685166@qq.com

Characteristics of the Preliminary Breakdown in Inverted-polarity Intracloud Lightning Flashes

  • 摘要: 基于快天线闪电定位阵列(fast antenna lightning mapping array,FALMA)的观测数据,对2019年8月2日和5日发生于我国宁夏的两次雷暴过程312例反极性云闪的初始击穿(preliminary breakdown,PB)特征进行统计。脉冲参数统计结果显示:PB过程持续时间算术平均值为9.8 ms;脉冲结构由脉冲上升沿、半宽、下降沿和脉冲宽度4个变量表征,算术平均值分别为7.3,4.5,5.6 μs和24.7 μs。脉冲频率和脉冲间隔的算术平均值分别是5.7 ms-1和169.2 μs。通道参数统计结果显示:反极性云闪的起始高度平均值为6.9 km。相比于正极性云闪,反极性云闪PB倾向于在弱雷达回波区域起始,雷达反射率因子算术平均值为19.3 dBZ。垂直发展距离和垂直速度平均值分别是2.0 km和2.8×105 m·s-1。PB参数随起始高度变化的结果表明:PB持续时间、垂直发展距离(垂直速度、脉冲频率)与起始高度呈正(负)相关。
  • 图  1  2019年8月2日和5日宁夏雷暴天气辐射源密度(填色)和反极性云闪始发位置分布

    (三角形表示FALMA测站, 圆点表示PB起始位置, 中心位置(0,0)对应位置为38.4°N,106.2°E)

    Fig. 1  Distributions of lightning source density(the shaded) and initiation locations of inverted-polarity intracloud flashes of thunderstorms in Ningxia on 2 Aug and 5 Aug in 2019

    (triangles and dots denote FALMA sites and lightning initiations, the central position (0, 0) corresponds to 38.4°N, 106.2°E)

    图  2  2019年8月5日16:58:41.8的反极性云闪个例

    (a)反极性云闪的电场波形,(b)辐射源定位高度随时间变化,(c)PB过程的电场波形和辐射源定位高度

    Fig. 2  A case of an inverted-polarity intracloud flash occurring at 165841.8 UTC 5 Aug 2019

    (a)electric field change waveform of inverted-polarity intracloud flash, (b)source located height varying with time, (c)electric field change waveform of PB process and source located height

    图  3  PB波形脉冲识别

    (a)负极性脉冲幅值的累积概率分布, (b)PB过程中大于噪声水平的脉冲

    Fig. 3  Recognizing pulses in PB waveform

    (a)cumulative probability distribution of negative pulse amplitudes, (b)recognized pulses with amplitudes higher than noise level

    图  4  PB持续时间统计

    Fig. 4  Histogram of PB duration

    图  5  脉冲结构参数统计

    Fig. 5  Histogram of pulse structure parameters

    图  6  脉冲频率和脉冲间隔统计

    Fig. 6  Histograms of pulse rate and pulse interval

    图  7  反极性云闪起始高度统计

    Fig. 7  Histogram of initiation altitude of inverted-polarity intracloud flashes

    图  8  闪电起始位置的雷达反射率因子统计

    Fig. 8  Histogram of combined reflectivity of PB initiation altitude

    图  9  2019年8月5日雷达反射率因子及对应AB剖面

    (蓝色和灰色三角形分别表示正极性和反极性云闪的PB起始位置)

    Fig. 9  Radar reflectivity and corresponding AB section on 5 Aug 2019

    (blue and gray triangles denote PB initiations of normal and inverted-polarity flashes)

    图  10  PB垂直距离统计

    Fig. 10  Histogram of PB vertical propagating distance

    图  11  PB垂直速度统计分布

    Fig. 11  Histogram of PB vertical speed

    图  12  PB参数与起始高度关系

    Fig. 12  Relationship between PB parameters and initiation altitude

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-09
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-16
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-31

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