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气象条件对廉玉1号玉米产量的影响

王俊方 周广胜 宋艳玲 任三学

王俊方, 周广胜, 宋艳玲, 等. 气象条件对廉玉1号玉米产量的影响. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(3): 373-378. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230310..
引用本文: 王俊方, 周广胜, 宋艳玲, 等. 气象条件对廉玉1号玉米产量的影响. 应用气象学报, 2023, 34(3): 373-378. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230310.
Wang Junfang, Zhou Guangsheng, Song Yanling, et al. Effects of meteorological conditions on the yield of Lianyu No.1 maize. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(3): 373-378. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230310.
Citation: Wang Junfang, Zhou Guangsheng, Song Yanling, et al. Effects of meteorological conditions on the yield of Lianyu No.1 maize. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2023, 34(3): 373-378. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20230310.

气象条件对廉玉1号玉米产量的影响

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20230310
资助项目: 

国家自然科学基金重点项目 42130514

详细信息
    通信作者:

    周广胜, 邮箱: zhougs@cma.gov.cn

Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Yield of Lianyu No.1 Maize

  • 摘要: 厘清气象条件对玉米产量影响是确保玉米稳产高产的基础。基于2018—2021年河北固城农业气象国家野外科学观测研究站廉玉1号玉米不同播种期的田间试验对气象条件影响玉米产量的分析表明: 播种期推迟导致发育期延长, 改变发育期的气象条件。廉玉1号玉米播种期推迟20 d较提前10 d的平均发育期长度延长2.5 d, 出苗-拔节期平均气温增加0.7℃, 乳熟-成熟期平均气温减少5.9℃。玉米单产总体随播种期推迟呈降低趋势, 6月8—18日期间播种可获得较高产量。出苗-拔节期的气温日较差以及抽雄-乳熟期的平均气温是影响廉玉1号玉米单产的关键气象因子。
  • 图  1  2018—2021年不同播种期玉米发育进程

    Fig. 1  Growth period of maize under different sowing dates during 2018-2021

    表  1  2018—2021年不同播种期玉米平均产量结构

    Table  1  Average components of maize yield under different sowing dates during 2018-2021

    处理 果穗粗/cm 果穗长/cm 单株籽粒数 百粒重/g
    S1 5.1 20.0 622.5 34.467
    S2 5.1 19.0 611.2 31.246
    S3 5.1 18.9 623.5 29.940
    S4 5.0 17.3 566.6 27.286
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2018—2021年玉米产量结构与各发育阶段气象因子的偏相关系数

    Table  2  Partial correlation coefficients of maize yield's components with meteorological factors at different growth stages during 2018-2021

    发育阶段 产量构成要素 平均气温/℃ 气温日较差/℃ 有效积温/(℃·d) 日照时数/h
    播种-出苗期 果穗粗 -0.059 0.349* 0.352* -0.368*
    果穗长 0.368* 0.022 -0.270 0.133
    单株籽粒数 0.059 0.230 -0.069 0.009
    百粒重 -0.211 0.310 -0.280 -0.065
    出苗-拔节期 果穗粗 -0.288 -0.353* 0.077 0.309
    果穗长 0.466** 0.361* 0.313* -0.214
    单株籽粒数 -0.542** 0.538** 0.441** -0.449**
    百粒重 -0.585** 0.627** 0.462** -0.116
    拔节-抽雄期 果穗粗 -0.179 -0.132 0.473** -0.381*
    果穗长 0.802** 0.234 0.227 -0.258
    单株籽粒数 0.130 0.702** 0.290 -0.651**
    百粒重 0.287 0.705** 0.682** -0.739**
    抽雄-乳熟期 果穗粗 0.001 -0.012 0.287 0.007
    果穗长 0.697** 0.177 0.435** -0.068
    单株籽粒数 0.681** 0.434** 0.523** -0.561**
    百粒重 0.811** 0.688** 0.828** -0.690**
    乳熟-成熟期 果穗粗 -0.056 -0.099 0.362* 0.140
    果穗长 0.521** 0.794** 0.434** -0.625**
    单株籽粒数 0.750** 0.012 0.509** 0.073
    百粒重 0.666** 0.530** 0.243 -0.258
    播种-成熟期 果穗粗 0.198 -0.352* 0.398* 0.288
    果穗长 0.810** 0.115 0.613** 0.047
    单株籽粒数 0.578** 0.643** 0.730** -0.653**
    百粒重 0.747** 0.633** 0.886** -0.514**
    注:*表示达到0.05显著性水平,**表示达到0.01显著性水平。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2018—2021年不同播种期玉米单产(单位:t·hm-2)

    Table  3  Maize yield per unit area under different sowing dates during 2018-2021(unit: t·hm-2)

    处理 2018年 2019年 2020年 2021年
    S1 13.556 13.632 14.827
    S2 14.972 11.347 11.817
    S3 9.819 12.415 11.571 11.066
    S4 8.465 10.377 9.482 8.667
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2018—2021年玉米单产与各发育阶段气象因子的偏相关关系

    Table  4  Partial correlations of maize yield per unit area with meteorological factors at different growth stages during 2018-2021

    发育阶段 平均气温/℃ 气温日较差/℃ 有效积温/(℃·d) 日照时数/h
    播种-出苗期 -0.112 0.343* -0.212 -0.081
    出苗-拔节期 -0.648** 0.637** 0.520** -0.316*
    拔节-抽雄期 0.278 0.776** 0.638** -0.783**
    抽雄-乳熟期 0.807** 0.618** 0.761** -0.662**
    乳熟-成熟期 0.724** 0.384* 0.363* -0.145
    播种-成熟期 0.737** 0.738** 0.898** -0.691**
    注:*表示达到0.05显著性水平,**表示达到0.01显著性水平。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-02-08
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-30
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-31

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