Ma Xiaolin, Gao Xining, Liu Yu, et al. Simulations of aerosol influences on the East Asian winter monsoon. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2018, 29(3): 333-343. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20180307.
Citation: Ma Xiaolin, Gao Xining, Liu Yu, et al. Simulations of aerosol influences on the East Asian winter monsoon. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2018, 29(3): 333-343. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20180307.

Simulations of Aerosol Influences on the East Asian Winter Monsoon

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20180307
  • Received Date: 2017-10-25
  • Rev Recd Date: 2018-03-20
  • Publish Date: 2018-05-31
  • As the most active circulation system in the northern hemisphere in winter, the east Asian winter monsoon has an important influence on weather and climate in east Asia. In recent years, the concentration of aerosol keeps increasing, and the east Asian winter monsoon is influenced by its change. Numerical simulation experiments are carried out to study the influence using NCAR/UCAR CAM5.1 model, adopting the aerosol emission source of years of 2000 and 1850 each, and models are run from 1991 to 2010 for 20 years. Results from 2001 to 2010 in winter are analyzed.It is found that the increase of aerosols reduces the winter monsoon in the southeastern China and northeastern Asia (35°-55°N, 115°-150°E). At the same time, causing precipitation to reduce and temperature to drop in the southeastern region of China. The increase of aerosols changes the distribution of atmospheric heat sources, resulting in the heat source on the southeastern region of China weakened, and heat sinks strengthened; heat sinks in the northeastern China are weakened and heat sources on Japan Islands are strengthened. The production of potential energy is weakened, and the consumption is enhanced. Another result is that the change of heat source and heat sink is mainly caused by the change of latent heat of condensation, and the change of latent heat generated by large scale process plays a key role. Besides, in the southeastern and northeastern regions of China, the conversion from the divergent wind kinetic energy into the full potential energy increases, resulting in the divergent wind weakening. At the same time, the conversion from the divergent wind into the non-divergent wind in this area is weakened, causing the weakening of the non-divergent wind, and finally resulting in the weakening of east Asian winter monsoon. Through direct and indirect climate effects, aerosol affects heat balance and precipitation, changes the distribution of atmospheric heat sources and thermal structures, leading to changes in the full potential energy and kinetic energy as well as the transformation between them, and ultimately causing the weakening of the east Asian winter monsoon. The impact of aerosol increase on east Asian winter monsoon cannot be ignored.
  • Fig. 1  The surface concentration of black carbon and sulfate in winter average from 2001 to 2010

    (a)black carbon from experiment A(unit:10-10 kg·kg-1), (b)black carbon from experiment B(unit:10-10 kg·kg-1), (c)sulfate from experiment A(unit:10-9 kg·kg-1), (d)sulfate from experiment B(unit:10-9 kg·kg-1)

    Fig. 2  Distributions of different elements in winter from 2001 to 2010

    (a)atmospheric heat source by reanalysis data(the shaded), (b)atmospheric heat source by experiment A(the shaded), (c)precipitation(the shaded) and 925 hPa wind field(the vector) by reanalysis data, (d)precipitation(the shaded) and 925 hPa wind field(the vector) by experiment A, (e)925 hPa temperature by reanalysis data(the shaded), (f)925 hPa temperature by experiment A(the shaded)

    Fig. 3  Results of experiment A minus experiment B in winter from 2001 to 2010

    (dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)(a)925 hPa wind field(the vector), (b)precipitation(the shaded), (c)925 hPa rotational wind(the vector), (d)surface temperature(the shaded)

    Fig. 4  The atmospheric heat source difference(the shaded) between experiment A and experiment B in winter from 2001 to 2010

    (dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)

    Fig. 5  Component differences of atmospheric heat source between experiment A and experiment B in winter from 2001 to 2010(dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)

    (a)long wave heating rate, (b)short wave heating rate, (c)condensation latent heating rate, (d)surface sensible heating rate

    Fig. 6  Differences of condensation latent heating rate between experiment A and experiment B in winter from 2001 to 2010(dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)

    (a)convective process, (b)large-scale process

    Fig. 7  The total potential energy conversion to divergent wind at 925 hPa in winter from 2001 to 2010 (dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)

    (a)experiment A, (b)experiment A minus experiment B

    Fig. 8  The interaction between divergent wind and rotational wind at 925 hPa in winter from 2001 to 2010(dots denote passing the test of 0.005 level)

    (a)experiment A(unit:10-5 m2·s-3), (b)experiment A minus experiment B(unit:10-5 m2·s-3)

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    • Received : 2017-10-25
    • Accepted : 2018-03-20
    • Published : 2018-05-31

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