Tang Junxian, Wang Peijuan, E Youhao, et al. Climatic suitability zoning of tea planting in Mainland China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(4): 397-407. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210402.
Citation: Tang Junxian, Wang Peijuan, E Youhao, et al. Climatic suitability zoning of tea planting in Mainland China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2021, 32(4): 397-407. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20210402.

Climatic Suitability Zoning of Tea Planting in Mainland China

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20210402
  • Received Date: 2021-04-06
  • Rev Recd Date: 2021-05-25
  • Publish Date: 2021-07-31
  • Starting from the national scale and annual level, the potential climate factors are interpolated into 10 km×10 km grid data based on the daily data set of 1903 weather stations from 1961 to 2019 across the country, and a tea plant distribution dataset consisting 1115 records is established. Using the maximum entropy model and GIS technology, the dominant climatic factors affecting tea plant in mainland China are screened according to the contribution percentage and Jackknife method, and the climatic suitability zoning of tea plant is divided into 4 grades: Unsuitable, sub-suitable, suitable and optimum, using the natural break point classification method. The threshold values of dominant climate factors for different division levels are determined and the climate characteristics of tea suitable zones are analyzed. The result shows that the maximum entropy model constructed based on the dominant affecting climatic factors is suitable for climatic suitability zoning of tea plant. The dominant climatic factors affecting the distribution of tea plant are averaged extreme minimum temperature, the frequency of spring frost, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and averaged relative humidity from March to September. The zoning results by the model are in good agreement with the distribution of famous tea towns and the location of geographical symbol tea. The changes of areas suitable for tea plant in different periods are also studied, and it shows that the north boundary of the tea plant suitable area for the six decadal periods from 1961 to 2019 is roughly the same, and all regions show a decreasing distribution trend from high latitudes in the east to low latitudes in the west. The areas where the northern boundary moves obviously are mainly in the high-latitude provinces in the east. The decadal variation of the centroid of the overall tea plant suitable area is relatively slight: The suitable areas expand northwards gradually except for the 1960s-1970s and the 1980s-1990s. These results provide a scientific basis for rational planning of tea planting layout and scientific development of tea industry. The zoning method adequately considers climatic conditions of the study area under natural conditions. However, other factors such as land use types, soil conditions, and tea varieties are not fully considered, and the interpolation method does not consider the influence of altitude on meteorological elements, which makes the result of area optimum for tea planting larger than reality.
  • Fig. 1  Location of the meteorological stations and tea plant sites in China

    Fig. 2  Contribution of potential climate factors based on Jackknife method to tea plant distribution in China

    Fig. 3  Climatic suitability zoning of tea plant in China

    Fig. 4  Comparison of zoning results of tea plant with famous tea town and the location of geographical symbol tea

    Fig. 5  Changes in the northern boundary of tea plant suitable areas in different decades

    Fig. 6  Changes in tea plant suitable areas during the past 60 years

    Table  1  Contribution percentage and permutation importance of potential climate factors

    变量 贡献百分率/% 置换重要性/%
    多年平均极端最低气温 36.7 4.4
    年降水量 24.8 33.3
    春霜冻频率 22.7 32.0
    年平均气温 6.5 1.8
    年日照时数 3.2 7.7
    3—9月平均相对湿度 2.0 3.0
    大于等于10℃活动积温 1.5 2.8
    海拔高度 1.5 6.8
    最冷月平均气温 1.1 8.2
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    Table  2  Graded climate factors affecting the distribution of climatic suitability grades of tea trees in China

    区域 多年平均极端最低气温(TM)/℃ 春霜冻频率(R)/% 年平均气温(T)/℃ 年降水量(P)/mm 3—9月平均相对湿度(F)/%
    高适宜区 TM>-7.8 R≤20 T>15.5 P>1010 F>76
    适宜区 -9.2<TM≤-7.8 20<R≤27 14.4<T≤15.5 810<P≤1010 73<F≤76
    次适宜区 -14.7<TM≤-9.2 27<R≤43 12.4<T≤14.4 650<P≤810 67<F≤73
    不适宜区 TM≤-14.7 R>43 T≤12.4 P≤650 F≤67
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    Table  3  Distribution of centroids of tea plant suitable area for different periods

    不同时期 质心位置 移动距离/km
    1961—1970年 28.45°N,110.69°E
    1971—1980年 28.32°N, 110.76°E 16.08
    1981—1990年 28.60°N, 110.71°E 31.45
    1991—2000年 28.40°N, 110.77°E 22.09
    2001—2010年 28.42°N, 110.75°E 2.73
    2011—2019年 28.64°N, 110.90°E 28.21
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