Huang Zewen, Peng Siyue, Zhang Haoran, et al. Characteristics of raindrop size distribution at Anxi of Fujian. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(2): 205-217. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220207.
Citation: Huang Zewen, Peng Siyue, Zhang Haoran, et al. Characteristics of raindrop size distribution at Anxi of Fujian. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(2): 205-217. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220207.

Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution at Anxi of Fujian

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20220207
  • Received Date: 2021-10-12
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-01-19
  • Publish Date: 2022-03-31
  • Observation of raindrop size distribution (DSD) is significant for the understanding of precipitation physical processes and improvement of radar quantitative rainfall estimation. Based on DSD measurements from 2017 to 2020 collected in Anxi, Fujian Province, the DSD variation characteristics in different seasons and different rain types are analyzed. Subsequently, local empirical relation between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R and that between Gamma shape parameter μ and slope parameter Λ are proposed. The DSDs observed in the local area are compared with counterparts obtained in other typical areas of China. The results show that DSDs in Anxi exhibit apparent seasonal variation. Generally, raindrops in summer can be the largest with the highest number concentration, while raindrops are the smallest in winter and the number concentration in spring is the lowest. With the increase of particle size, the seasonal variation of the number concentration of raindrops is similar to that in Taoyuan, Taiwan Province, China, while the number concentration of small raindrops is different. Compared with East China and North China, DSDs for summer stratiform precipitation in Anxi have higher concentration of small raindrops, while the concentrations of medium to large raindrops are similar to those in East China. For convective precipitation, the DSDs concentration is similar to that in North China for small raindrops while similar number concentration of medium raindrops to that in East China, while the number concentration of large raindrops is between that obtained in East China and North China. The Z-R relationship of summer stratiform precipitation is in good correspondence with the results obtained in Taoyuan. With the same Z, the R in East China is slightly larger than that in Anxi and Taoyuan; the Z-R relationship for convective precipitation in Anxi is also close to that in Taoyuan. When Z is not greater than 40 dBZ, the Z-R relationship in East China is very close to that in Anxi; when Z exceeds 40 dBZ, R in East China is significantly larger than that in Anxi and Taoyuan. When the slope parameter is larger than 2.5 mm-1, the relationship between the shape parameter μ and slope parameter Λ of the summer Gamma spectrum in Anxi is similar to that in Florida.
  • Fig. 1  Statistical cumulative frequency f distribution of diameter D and falling velocity Vt for raindrops before(a) and after(b) quality control from May 2017 to May 2020

    Fig. 2  Average profiles of atmospheric temperature(a), relative humidity(b), convective available energy (the cross and horizontal line denote the average and median, respectively; the upper and lower edges in box denote the 25 and 75 percentiles, respectively; the highest and the lowest denote the maximum and minimum, respectively, the same hereinafter) (c) and horizontal wind(d) observed by the radiosonde at Xiamen Site from May 2017 to May 2020

    Fig. 3  Boxplots for integral quantities and Gamma parameters in four seasons

    Fig. 4  Average raindrop size distribution for four seasons

    (a)the entire spectra, (b)the enlarged spectra for raindrops smaller than 1.4 mm

    Fig. 5  Boxplot of the entire stratiform and convective rain spectrum samples

    Fig. 6  Probability distributions of integral quantities and Gamma parameters derived from the stratiform and convective spectra

    Fig. 7  Average rain spectra and fitted Gamma spectra for two precipitation types observed during the entire period at Anxi of Fujian(a), and comparisons of Gamma spectra among Anxi of Fujian, East China and North China for stratiform(b) and convective(c) precipitation in summer

    Fig. 8  Cumulative frequency f distributions of Z-R and fitted power relations for the entire samples and summer samples of stratiform and convective precipitation

    (a)entire samples of stratiform precipitation, (b)entire samples of convective precipitation, (c)summer samples of stratiform precipitation, (d)summer samples of convective precipitation

    Fig. 9  Scatters of μ and Λ (the gray cross) and the fitted binomial relations (the solid line) meeting the conditions of NT>1000 mm-3 and R>5 mm·h-1 at Anxi of Fujian during the entire period(a) and in summer(b)

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    • Received : 2021-10-12
    • Accepted : 2022-01-19
    • Published : 2022-03-31


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