Bao Xinghua, Xia Rudi, Luo Yali, et al. Comparative analysis on meteorological and hydrological rain gauge observations of the extreme heavy rainfall event in Henan Province during July 2021. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(6): 668-681. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220603.
Citation: Bao Xinghua, Xia Rudi, Luo Yali, et al. Comparative analysis on meteorological and hydrological rain gauge observations of the extreme heavy rainfall event in Henan Province during July 2021. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2022, 33(6): 668-681. DOI:  10.11898/1001-7313.20220603.

Comparative Analysis on Meteorological and Hydrological Rain Gauge Observations of the Extreme Heavy Rainfall Event in Henan Province During July 2021

DOI: 10.11898/1001-7313.20220603
  • Received Date: 2022-04-15
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-06-15
  • Available Online: 2022-11-21
  • Publish Date: 2022-11-17
  • The extreme heavy rainfall event in Henan Province during 17-23 July 2021 with 1-hour rainfall intensity breaking historical record in the inland of China, ranks second among the top 10 weather and climate events in China in 2021. Previous studies have investigated the rain gauge observations collected by the meteorological ground stations to analyze the rainfall situation and count the extreme value of the "21·7" process. Considering the rainfall is uneven in space and time, the observations from a single source has great uncertainty which may miss the actual rainfall extreme value. By comparing the rainfall observations between meteorological and hydrological rain gauge stations, the objectivity and accuracy of the rainfall records from two business systems are analyzed for the "21·7" extreme heavy rainfall event. It is found that the observations exhibit good agreement in the accumulated rainfall distributions of various levels, and the temporal evolution of daily and hourly rainfall. However, the positions and values of accumulated rainfall and hourly rainfall intensity extremum are different in detail according to these two systems. The systematic deviation between the meteorological and hydrological observations is less than 1% in the heavy rainfall area (6-day accumulated rainfall more than 600 mm). These differences are related to the distinctness in the number, location, density of stations, and the accuracy of observation instruments. In addition, the inhomogeneous features of the rainfall in time and space also lead to the deviation of rainfall records between meteorological and hydrological observations.On the other hand, the meteorological and hydrological rainfall data in top 3 accumulated rainfall cities (Zhengzhou, Hebi and Xinxiang) are merged. The results show that merged rainfall data can present more detailed rainfall distributions and more objective rainfall evolution characteristics compared to single source data. Based on the merged rainfall data, the rainfall features in these three cities are summarized. The strongest rainfall period in Hebi and Xinxiang are about 26 hours and 28 hours later than that at Zhengzhou, respectively, while the rainfall events happened in these three cities are characterized by large accumulated amount, extremely strong hourly intensity, concentrated location and sudden increase of rainfall intensity.
  • Fig. 1  Accumulated rainfall from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021 based on meteorological(a) and hydrological(b) observations, terrain elevations over central and northern Henan Province and its surroundings(the black thick curves denote provincial boundaries, the grey thin curves denote city boundaries)(c), distribution of meteorological and hydrological rain gauge stations(d)

    Fig. 2  Daily accumulated rainfall based on meteorological and hydrological observations during 17-22 Jul 2021

    Fig. 3  Accumulated rainfall from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021 based on meteorological, hydrological, and merged observations over Zhengzhou, Hebi and Xinxiang

    Fig. 4  Temporal variations of hourly area-rainfall at Zhengzhou, Hebi and Xinxiang from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021

    Fig. 5  Hourly rainfall around Zhengzhou National Basic Meteorological Station with Meteorological(the dot) and hydrological(the triangle) stations(the dark red circle denotes the area with a radius of 10 km centered on Zhengzhou National Basic Meteorological Station) from 1600 BT to 1700 BT on 20 Jul 2021

    Fig. 6  Temporal variations of the hourly rainfall at Zhengzhou, Hebi, Xinxiang typical meteorological stations and adjacent hydrological stations from 0800 BT 19 Jul to 0800 BT 22 Jul in 2021

    Table  1  Top 10 meteorological and hydrological stations with the highest 6-day accumulated rainfall from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021

    序号 气象站 水文站
    站点 雨量/mm 站点 雨量/mm
    1 鹤壁市科创中心 1 122.6 新乡市龙水梯 1 073.5
    2 郑州市新密白寨 993.1 新乡市猴头脑 918.0
    3 新乡市凤凰山 965.5 焦作市东岭后 916.5
    4 郑州市侯寨 936.0 郑州市尖岗 916.5
    5 新乡市牧野乡 935.2 鹤壁市大水头 914.0
    6 鹤壁市外国语中学 923.4 新乡市新乡水文局 907.5
    7 郑州市荥阳石板沟 905.8 新乡市耿庄 905.5
    8 郑州市尖岗 899.5 新乡市凤泉区 901.0
    9 郑州市巩义文化站 895.3 新乡市虎掌沟 896.5
    10 安阳市六十五中 889.7 新乡市市政府 884.5
    DownLoad: Download CSV

    Table  2  Top 10 meteorological and hydrological stations with the highest hourly rainfall rate from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021

    序号 气象站 水文站
    站点 雨强/(mm·h-1) 时间 站点 雨强/(mm·h-1) 时间
    1 郑州国家
    基本气象站
    201.9 2021-07-20T16:00—17:00 郑州市
    经济开发区
    151.0 2021-07-20T16:00—17:00
    2 郑州市尖岗 158.0 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00 郑州市地震局 150.0 2021-07-20T16:00—17:00
    3 新乡市牧野乡 149.9 2021-07-21T20:00—21:00 郑州市尖岗 147.0 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    4 郑州市中原区 144.4 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00 郑州市常庄 146.0 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    5 郑州市奥体中心 138.7 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00 郑州市大李庄 141.5 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    6 安阳市六十五中 138.0 2021-07-22T04:00—05:00 郑州市水利设计院 136.5 2021-07-20T16:00—17:00
    7 郑州市外国语 137.9 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00 郑州市西流湖 134.0 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    8 郑州市气象局 135.7 2021-07-20T16:00—17:00 鹤壁市南宋庄 129.5 2021-07-21T18:00—19:00
    9 新乡市牧野 131.1 2021-07-21T19:00—20:00 郑州市市水务局 128.5 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    10 鹤壁市淇县北阳 130.1 2021-07-21T18:00—19:00 郑州市铁路局 127.0 2021-07-20T15:00—16:00
    DownLoad: Download CSV

    Table  3  Daily rainfall,6-day accumulation area rainfall, absolute error and relative error in the heavy rainfall area with 6-day accumulation rainfall greater than 600 mm for meteorological and hydrological observations over central and northern Henan Province during 17-22 Jul 2021

    落区位置 统计量 07-17 07-18 07-19 07-20 07-21 07-22 07-17—22
    河南省中部 气象站雨量(70站)/mm 4.4 40.7 243.9 379.3 45.9 2.23 716.5
    水文站雨量(58站)/mm 4.7 44.2 236.5 383.0 42.0 2.18 712.5
    绝对偏差/mm -0.3 -3.5 7.4 -3.7 3.9 0.05 4.0
    相对偏差/% -5.8 -8.5 -3.1 -1 8.5 2.3 0.6
    河南省北部 气象站雨量(109站)/mm 14.2 73.8 45.4 165.9 394.1 38.4 731.9
    水文站雨量(168站)/mm 17.3 83.5 48.7 154.2 383.0 44.8 731.6
    绝对偏差/mm -3.1 -9.7 -3.3 11.7 11.1 -6.4 0.3
    相对偏差/% -21.9 -13.1 -7.2 7.1 2.8 -16.7 0.04
    注:绝对偏差为气象站与水文站雨量之差,相对偏差为气象站与水文站雨量差和气象站雨量之比,下同。
    DownLoad: Download CSV

    Table  4  Daily rainfall,6-day accumulation area rainfall, absolute error and relative error of meteorological and hydrological observations at Zhengzhou, Hebi and Xinxiang during 17-22 Jul 2021

    城市 统计量 07-17 07-18 07-19 07-20 07-21 07-22 07-17—22
    郑州 气象站雨量/mm 3.3 30.5 190.6 278.7 30.3 1.8 535.3
    水文站雨量/mm 3.1 31.9 182.9 252.1 28.6 1.9 500.6
    绝对偏差/mm 0.2 -1.4 7.7 26.6 1.7 -0.1 34.7
    相对偏差/% 7.0% -4.6% 4.0% 9.5% 5.5% -6.5% 6.5%
    鹤壁 气象站雨量/mm 12.2 55.4 22.8 137.5 334.1 24.1 586.1
    水文站雨量/mm 16.0 55.3 24.8 119.9 328.7 23.2 567.8
    绝对偏差/mm -3.8 0.1 -2.0 17.6 5.4 0.9 18.3
    相对偏差/% -30.7% -0.3% -8.7% 12.8% 1.6% 3.5% 3.1%
    新乡 气象站雨量/mm 6.9 34.1 53.1 212.0 146.3 16.2 468.7
    水文站雨量/mm 9.8 50.4 55.8 192.6 169.8 23.6 502.1
    绝对偏差/mm -2.9 -16.3 -2.7 19.4 -23.5 -7.4 -33.4
    相对偏差/% -42.2% -47.9% -5.2% 9.2% -16.0% -45.5% -7.1%
    DownLoad: Download CSV

    Table  5  Accumulated rainfall for various durations at the meteorological and hydrological typical stations from Zhengzhou National Basic Meteorological Station and adjacent hydrological stations from 0800 BT 17 Jul to 0800 BT 23 Jul in 2021

    时段 郑州国家基本气象站/mm 二七水文站/mm 铁路局水文站/mm 地震局水文站/mm 经济开发区水文站/mm 尖岗气象站/mm 尖岗水文站/mm
    07-20T15:00—16:00 158.0 147.0
    07-20T16:00—17:00 201.9 108.0 122.0 150.0 151.0
    07-20T14:00—17:00 333.2 319.0
    07-20T15:00—18:00 310.8 227.0 288.0 300.0 266.0
    07-20T14:00—20:00 374.3 282.0 354.0 366.0 315.0 465.9 463.5
    07-20T08:00—21T08:00 624.1 504.5 568.0 609.5 537.0 626.9 691.1
    07-19T08:00—21T08:00 731.0 608.5 664.5 713.5 638.5 816.4 816.1
    07-17T08:00—23T08:00 789.3 700.0 766.0 800.5 702.0 899.5 916.5
    DownLoad: Download CSV

    Table  6  The maximun hourly, daily, and 6-day accumulated rainfall based on meteorological,hydrological,and merged rainfall at Zhengzhou, Hebi and Xinxiang

    地点 资料 最大小时雨量 最大日雨量 6 d累积雨量
    雨量/mm 站点 雨量/mm 站点 雨量/mm 站点
    郑州 融合资料 19.0 264.2 516.4
    气象站 201.9 郑州国家基本气象站 663.9 侯寨 993.1 新密白寨
    水文站 151 经济开发区 695.6 尖岗 916.5 尖岗
    鹤壁 融合资料 26.2 330.7 574.9
    气象站 130.1 淇县北阳 777.5 科创中心 1122.6 科创中心
    水文站 128.5 南宋庄 614.5 新村 914.0 大水头
    新乡 融合资料 17.6 200.6 491.0
    气象站 149.9 牧野乡 570.2 卫辉塔岗 965.5 凤凰山
    水文站 126.5 市政府 560.0 虎掌沟 1073.5 龙水梯
    DownLoad: Download CSV
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