Zhao Tianbao, Hua Lijuan. Applicability evaluation of surface pressure for several reanalysis datasets over China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2009, 20(1): 70-79.
Citation: Zhao Tianbao, Hua Lijuan. Applicability evaluation of surface pressure for several reanalysis datasets over China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2009, 20(1): 70-79.

Applicability Evaluation of Surface Pressure for Several Reanalysis Datasets over China

  • Received Date: 2008-03-03
  • Rev Recd Date: 2008-07-25
  • Publish Date: 2009-02-28
  • The evaluation of applicability of the reanalysis datasets is crucial to their application. The reliability of surface pressure in China obtained respectively from the reanalysis datasets is focused on, i. e. , ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE. The analysis is carried out in different regions, different seasons and different periods with compared to the station observations over China.The results indicate that mean values of the three reanalysis products could basically display spatio-temporal consistence with observation. However, the differences found among them are more obvious in the western China than in the eastern China, and is more significant in summer than in winter. At the same time, the differences among the ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR and the observations are stronger before 1970s, and the significant systematic bias could be detected from the mean value of NCEP/DOE and the observations, but the ERA-40 is closer than the NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE to the observations over most parts of China, especially in the west of China.The results also indicate that three reanalysis products all can represent the interannual variations and the linear climate trends displayed by the observations in most regions of China to a certain extent, but the discrepancies among them still has a certain regional and seasonal dependency. The most obvious differences among them can be detected in the west areas, especially the Tibet Plateau and the surrounding regions in sumer. In terms of the agreement with the observations, the ERA-40 is more consistent with observations, but the NCEP/NCAR overestimate interdecadal variations for most areas of China in summer due to the tremendously "low" value before 1970s.In conclusion, the reliability and applicability the surface pressure of ERA-40 are better than those of NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE in most areas of China. The possible causes may be that more observing data, such as surface air temperature, surface pressure and so on, have been used in the ERA-40 assimilation systems, while the data used by the NCEP assimilation systems only include the observed wind field.
  • Fig. 1  The distribution of observation stations with topography (shaded areas, unit:m) and sub-regions over China

    Fig. 2  The spatial distributions of surface pressure differences (unit:hPa) between the reanalysis and the observations in the winter and summer

    Fig. 3  The surface pressure anomaly, relative to the 1979—2001 base period, for the reanalysis and observations across 9 regions of China in the winter and summer

    Fig. 4  The spatial distributions of linear trends of the surface pressure anomalies (unit:hPa/10a) for reanalysis and observations

    Fig. 5  The first leading EOF eigenvectors and associated time series of the summer surface pressure (unit:hPa) anomaly

    (coefficients R1 and R2 are correlation coefficients of the PCs of ERA-40 and NCEP-1 with that of observations, respectively)

    Table  1  The differences of surface pressure between reanalysis and observations in 9 regions of China (unit:hPa)

    Table  2  The percentage variances explained by the first two leading eigenvectors (unit:%)

  • [1]
    Kalnay E, Kanamitsua M, Kistler R, et al.The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project.Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 1996, 77:437-471. doi:  10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
    Kistler R, Kalnay E, Collins W, et al.The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis:Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 2001, 82:247-267. doi:  10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<0247:TNNYRM>2.3.CO;2
    Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzake W, Woollen J, et al.NCEP-DOE AMIP-Ⅱ Reanalysis (R-2).Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 2002, 83:1631-1643. doi:  10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631
    Schubert S D, Park C K, Wu C Y, et al.A Multi-year Assimilation with the GEOS-1 System:Overview and Results. NASA Technical Memorandum Memo, 104606, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995:1-182.
    Gibson J K, Kallberg P, Uppala S, et al. ERA Description. ECMWF Re-Analysis Project Report Series, 1, 1997.
    Simmons A J, Gibson J K.The ERA-40 project plan.ERA-40 Proj Rep Ser, 1, 2000:1-63.
    Uppala S M, Källberg P W, Simmons A J, et al.The ERA-40 re-analysis.Quart J R Meteorol Soc, 2005, 131:2961-3012. doi:  10.1256/qj.04.176
    Onogi K, Tsusui J, Koide H, et al.The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J Meteor Soc Japan, 2007, 85(3):369-432. doi:  10.2151/jmsj.85.369
    Trenberth K E.Atmospheric circulation climate changes.Climate Changes, 1995, 31:427-453. doi:  10.1007/BF01095156
    Uppala S. Observing System Performance in ERA.ECMEF reanalysis Project Reports Series, 3, 1997:1-261.
    Bengtsson L, Shukla J.Integration of space and in situ observations to study global climate change.Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 1998, 69:1130-1143. http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/31868/
    Fiorino M.The Impact of Observing System Changes on the Climate-scale Variability and Temperature in the ECMWF and NCEP Reanalyses.2nd Intl Conf of Reanalyses, England, 23—27 Aug, 1999. https://ams.confex.com/ams/older/99annual/abstracts/1610.htm
    WCRP, Proceedings of 2nd WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses. WCRP-109, WMO/TD-No.985, Geneva:WMO, 2000:1-452.
    Bengtsson L, Hodges K I, Hagemann S. Sensitivty of the ERA-40 reanalysis to the observing system:Determination of the global atmospheric circulation from reduced observations.Tellus, 2004, 56A:456-471. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41570899_Sensitivity_of_the_ERA40_reanalysis_to_the_observing_system_Determination_of_the_global_atmospheric_circulation_from_reduced_observations
    Bengtsson L, Hagemann S, Hodges K I. Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data.J Geophys Res, 2004, 109, D1111, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004536.
    Yang S, Lau K M, Kim K M.Variations of the East Asian jet stream and Asian-Pacific-American winter climate anomalies.J Climate, 2002, 15:306-325. doi:  10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0306:VOTEAJ>2.0.CO;2
    Inoue T, Matsumoto J.A comparison of summer sea level pressure over east Eurasia between NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ERA-40 for the period 1960—1999. J Meteor Soc Japan, 2004, 82:951-958. doi:  10.2151/jmsj.2004.951
    Wu R, Kinter J L, Kirtman B P. Discrepancy of interdecadal changes in the Asian region among the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, objective analyses, and observations.J Climate, 2005, 15:3048-3067. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Renguang_Wu/publication/241477004_Discrepancy_of_Interdecadal_Changes_in_the_Asian_Region_among_the_NCEP-NCAR_Reanalysis_Objective_Analyses_and_Observations/links/551a9daf0cf26cbb81a30add.pdf?disableCoverPage=true
    苏志侠, 吕世华, 罗思维.美国NCEP/NCAR全球再分析资料及其初步分析.高原气象, 1999, 18:209-218. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GYQX902.009.htm
    徐影, 丁一汇, 赵宗慈.美国NCEP/NCAR近50年全球再分析资料在我国气候变化研究中可信度的初步分析.应用气象学报, 2001, 12(3):337-347. http://qk.cams.cma.gov.cn/jams/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?file_no=20010345&flag=1
    赵天保, 艾丽坤, 冯锦明.NCEP再分析料和中国站点观测资料的分析比较.气候与环境研究, 2004, 9:278-294. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-QHYH200402004.htm
    赵天保, 符淙斌.中国区域ERA-40、NCEP-2再分析资料与观测资料的初步比较与分析.气候与环境研究, 2006, 11:14-32. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-QHYH200601001.htm
    方之芳, 张丽.夏季NCEP资料质量和20世纪70年代东亚热低压的突变.高原气象, 2006, 25(2):179-189. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GYQX200602001.htm
    黄刚. NCEP/NCAR和ERA-40再分析资料以及探空观测资料分析中国北方地区年代际气候变化.气候与环境研究, 2006, 11(3):310-320. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-QHYH200603006.htm
    Goovaerts P. Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation. New York:Oxford University Press, 1997:1-467.
  • 加载中
  • -->


    Figures(5)  / Tables(2)

    Article views (4882) PDF downloads(1821) Cited by()
    • Received : 2008-03-03
    • Accepted : 2008-07-25
    • Published : 2009-02-28


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint