Liao Rongwei, Zhao Ping. Inter-decadal variations of summer water budgets in the monsoon wetness region of Eastern China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2013, 24(1): 12-22.
Citation: Liao Rongwei, Zhao Ping. Inter-decadal variations of summer water budgets in the monsoon wetness region of Eastern China. J Appl Meteor Sci, 2013, 24(1): 12-22.

Inter-decadal Variations of Summer Water Budgets in the Monsoon Wetness Region of Eastern China

  • Received Date: 2012-06-13
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-10-16
  • Publish Date: 2013-02-28
  • Using monthly means of NCAR/ NCEP reanalysis datasets and rainfall data from 660 surface stations in China, a water budgets time series over the monsoon wetness region in Eastern China is calculated by a water vapor transport method for the period from 1983 to 2002, referring to changes in inter-decadal variability of water budgets associated with the anomalous atmospheric circulations and precipitation in the monsoon wetness region of Eastern China. Relationships between the water budget index and the variability of the atmospheric circulation and rainfall in China are examined. The results show that the summer water budget time series displays the variability on the inter-decadal scale from the 1980s to the 1990s in the region. The correlation coefficient is 0.71 between the water budgets and regional average precipitation and decreases to 0.55 after removing the trends. The index reflects the variations of the meridional winds anomalies and indicates an intensity of summer monsoon and an anomaly of rainfall along the valleys in the monsoon wetness region of Eastern China. The anomalous water vapor transport is affected by four anomalous circulations: The anomalous cyclonic circulation between 20°N and 30°N over the Eastern China, and the anomalous anti-cyclonic circulations between 40°N and 60°N over East Asian continent, between 18°N and 30°N over the west Pacific, and between 5°N and 20°N over the Bay of Bengal. Anomalous moisture flux convergence appears in the south of the Yangtze. Corresponding to the higher-index value decades, the low pressure centering in Mongolia is weaker and the surface temperature, sea surface temperature, the convergence in lower troposphere and divergence in upper troposphere are generally stronger in East Asia and the western north Pacific. Meanwhile, the southerly wind anomalies are prevailing in the eastern coast of China. This anomaly intensifies upward motion over the south mainland of China and drives the water vapor transport from South China Sea, and increases the water budgets and precipitation, with the difference of rainfall above 100 mm in the southern China. The water budgets are net surplus though uneven from 1983 to 2002. Vapor income in the low value year is about 24.3% less than in the high value year, and the precipitation is less by 18%. The anomalous meridional water budget is larger than zonal one, accounting for 71.3% of net budget. The anomalous water budget of low-index value decades accounts for 7% in latitude and 24% in longitude relative to the high-index value decades. The variation of the meridional water budget is larger than zonal one and is greater in magnitude. Therefore, the net water budget is quite different between high and low value decades of water budget and the anomalous precipitation is also significantly different.
  • Fig. 1  The monsoon wetness region in Eastern China (rectangle)[34]

    Fig. 2  The normalized temporal curves of the water budgets and regional mean rainfall in the monsoon wetness region during summer from 1983 to 2002

    (the dotted line represents the averages of the standardized precipitation over 1983—1992 and 1993—2002, respectively)(a) and the statistic curve of the M-K test for water budgets (the straight line represents the 0.001 level)(b)

    Fig. 3  Composite difference of summer precipitation between high and low value decades of water budgets and the correlations between regional mean precipitation and the divergence of vertically integrated water vapor flux in the monsoon wetness region

    (the shaded denotes passing test of 0.1 level)(a) the composite difference of summer precipitation (high minus low; unit: mm), (b) the standard deviation of summer precipitation during 1983—2002(unit: mm), (c) correlations between regional mean precipitationand the divergence of vertically integrated water vapor flux

    Fig. 4  Composite difference of vertically integrated water vapor flux and its convergence between high and low value decades of water budget in the monsoon wetness region (the shaded denotes passing the test of 0.1 level)

    (a) water vapor flux (unit: kg·m-1·s-1), (b) divergence of water vapor flux (unit: mm·d-1)

    Fig. 5  Composite difference of summer surface temperature monsoon wetness region (unit: ℃)(a), the surface pressure (isoline, unit:hPa) and wind (vector)(b) and SST (unit:℃)(c) (the shaded denotes passing the test of 0.1 level; the thick dashed line denotes the height of 1500 m)

    Fig. 6  Composite difference of summer wind at 100 hPa (unit: m·s-1)(a), wind divergence at 300 hPa (unit:107s-1)(b), geopotential height at 500 hPa (unit: gpm)(c) and wind at 850 hPa (unit: m·s-1)(d) in the monsoon wetness region

    (the shaded denotes passing the test of 0.1 level; the black area denotes terrain)

    Fig. 7  Composite difference of summer water vapor flux divergence at 300 hPa (unit: 10-6kg·m-2·s-1)(a) and 850 hPa (b)(unit: 10-5kg·m-2·s-1), pseudo-equivalent temperature (unit: K) at 300 hPa (c) and 850 hPa (d)(unit: K) in the monsoon wetness region (the shaded denotes passing the test of 0.1 level; the black area denotes terrain)

    Fig. 8  Composite difference of summer 22°—30°N average (a) and 110°—120°E average (b) of vertical circulation (vector; unit of u, v: m·s-1; unit of w:10-2 Pa·s-1, w is expanded by 2 times) and pseudo-equivalent temperature (isoline, unit: K) in the monsoon wetness region

    (the shaded denotes passing the test of 0.1 level; the black area denotes terrain)

    Table  1  Composite values of the summer water budgets and precipitation between high and low value decades in the monsoon wetness region of Eastern China with their differences

    距平 高值年代 低值年代 差值
    5.8 -0.4 6.2
    -3.3 -0.8 -2.5
    2.5 -1.2 3.7
    降水量/mm 18.1 -14.4 32.5
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    • Received : 2012-06-13
    • Accepted : 2012-10-16
    • Published : 2013-02-28


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