强对流云中“穴道”的物理含义和应用

Physical Meanings of “Cave Channel” in Strong Convective Storm with Its Application

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基金项目:国家自然科学基金
许焕斌  田利庆
[1]北京应用气象研究所,北京100029 [2]中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京100029
摘要:
      自提出在冰雹云中存在“穴道”“零域”结构以来,已有一批相关模拟和观测研究论文发表,进一步深化了对这一现象的理解,同时在探讨和应用中也显现出一些问题或疑问:如“穴道”“零域”结构存在的条件,阵雨性对流云中是否也有类似结构,前人的研究中为何未明确指出这种结构,在应用中如何判识“穴道”“零域”等。该文以观测实例和数值模拟作了回答,并系统地探讨了“穴道”“零域”的物理意义和应用要领,明确了以下几点:从本质上来看“穴道”“零域”具有的功能是云中宏、微观运动量场之间相互作用的表现;强对流云中一些特殊的雷达回波结构,如有界弱回波区(BWER)、无界弱回波区(WER)或悬挂回波(OE),则是这种相互作用的产物;只有在云中的气流速度与粒子的末速大小相当时,这种相互作用才起重要作用, 粒子的末速比气流的速度过大或过小,其作用反映弱;对“穴道”“零域”物理含义的探讨可深化对雷达产品的动力及物理意义的认识,这对于在灾害性——高影响天气的临近预报中去寻找特征指标和判定防雹增雨作业的部位、时机等提供了科学依据。
关键词:宏、微观场相互作用  临近天气预报  高影响天气  人工影响天气  数值模拟
Abstract:
      Since the “cave channel”(CC) or “zero region”(ZR) structure is suggested, se veral papers are published on this title. The understanding of the physical mean ings of CC or ZR is deepened by these papers, but in principle and application t here are questions to answer or clear up, such as the conditions of formation of CC or ZR in strong storm, the analogous CC in rain storm, why previous studies do not indicate the existence of CC, how to find CC structure in practical appl ication etc. These questions are answered and the meanings are further understoo d by observation facts and numerical simulations. It is shown explicitly as the following. The CC or ZR structure is the results of the interaction between clou d's macro flow field and cloud's micro particle terminal velocities in nature . Some special structure of radar echo is BWER (bounded weak echo region), WE R( weak echo region) or OE (overhang echo), it is the product of the interaction t oo. The interaction can play very important role only when the terminal velocity of particles is equivalent to the velocity of airflow. If the terminal velocity of particles relatively is too small or too large the effects of this interacti on are very weak. The study of this interaction can deepen the understanding of the dynamical and physical meanings of the radar products, it is much necessary to find the characteristic criteria for now casting of high impact weather and in weather modification.
Keywords:interaction between the cloud's macro dynamics and the cloud microphysics  now casting  high impact weather  weather modification  numerical simulation
许焕斌,田利庆.强对流云中“穴道”的物理含义和应用[J].应用气象学报,2008,19(3):372~379..Physical Meanings of “Cave Channel” in Strong Convective Storm with Its Application[J].Journal of Applied Meterological Science,2008,19(3):372~379

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